A PROJECT REPORT ENTITLED “Repair and Restoration of Heritage Structure in Surat City” TEAM ID
“Repair and Restoration of Heritage Structure in Surat City”
TEAM ID: 14011
TEAM MEMBERS ENROLLMENT NO.
LADUMOR GAURAVKUMAR 150060106078
PANDEY SHUBHAM 150060106093
PARDESHI ABHISHEK A 150060106094
PATEL BIMAL 150060106100
In Partial Fulfilment for the award of the degree
Bachelor of Engineering
BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Gujarat Technological University
We hereby declare that the PSAR Reports, submitted along with the Project Report for the project entitled “Repair and Restoration of Heritage Structure in Surat City” submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Department to Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad, is a Bonafede record of the project work carried out at BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
BHARTHANA, SURAT-395017 under the supervision of Pranav Desai and that no part of any of these PSAR reports has been directly copied from any students’ reports or taken from any other source, without providing due reference.
Name of The Students Sign of Students
PARDESHI ABHISHEK A-150060106094
This is to certify that the PSAR reports, submitted along with the project entitled “Repair and Restoration of Heritage Structure in Surat City” has been carried out by LADUMOR GAURAVKUMAR-150060106078, PANDEY SHUBHAM-150060106093, PARDESHI ABHISHEK A-150060106094, PATEL BIMAL- 150060106100 under my guidance in partial fulfilment for the degree of: Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Department 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2018-19. These students have successfully completed PSAR activity under my guidance.
Internal Guide Head of the Department
It has been a pleasure working on our project “Repair and Restoration of Heritage Structure in Surat City”
We are extremely thankful to Mr. KAMALSINH PADHIAR (H.O.D OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT) for allowing us permission to undertake the project.
We also very thankful to our guide Mr. KAMANI AMIN for being there with us at each step when we felt helpless. His advices and suggestions were extremely helpful
We are also very thankful SURAT MUNICIPAL COMMISSION for speedy legal allowances
Historic structure resembles the great glory of a nation’s culture, history, and its importance. The repair and restoration of such historic structure is necessary for the future generation to have knowledge about the history of their motherland. Restoration and repair is necessary for these historic structures in order to increase the life span and durability without hindering the originality and its values.
This project focuses on repair and restoration of the old fort at Surat city which was built during Mughal period approx. 350-400 years ago. The restoration and repair is done keeping in mind the old methodology of construction.
CH NO. TOPICS PAGE NO.
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition 1
1.2 History of restoration ecology 1
1.3 Meaning of Heritage Buildings 2
1.4 Importance of Heritage Buildings 3
1.5 Criteria For listing Heritage Building 4
1.6 Factors Deteriorating Heritage Buildings 4
2 LITERATURE STUDY PAPER1 6
3 OBJECTIVES 11
4 STUDY AREA 4.1 A leaf from History 12
4.2 Problems at Site 12
4.3 Restoration method which are to be used are as follows 13
4.4 Material used 13
5 METHODOLOGY 5.1 Use of Lime Concrete 18
Tests to be performed References 21
Chapter 1: Introduction
Restoration ecology is the academic study of the process, whereas ecological restoration is the actual project or process by restoration practitioners. The Society for Ecological Restoration defines “ecological restoration” as an “intentional activity that initiates or accelerates the recovery of an ecosystem with respect to its health, integrity and sustainability”. Ecological restoration includes a wide scope of projects including erosion control, reforestation, removal of non-native species and weeds, revegetation of disturbed areas, daylighting streams, reintroduction of native species (preferably native species that have local adaptation), and habitat and range improvement for targeted species.
E. O. Wilson, a biologist, states, “Here is the means to end the great extinction spasm. The next century will, I believe, be the era of restoration in ecology.
History of restoration ecology:
Restoration ecology emerged as a separate field in ecology in the late twentieth century. “Restoration ecology” was not first formally identified as a distinct scientific field until the late twentieth century. The term was coined by John Aber and William Jordan III when they were at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. However, indigenous peoples, land managers, stewards, and laypeople have been practicing ecological restoration or ecological management for thousands of years.
Considered the birthplace of modern ecological restoration, the first tallgrass prairie restoration was the 1936 Curtis Prairie at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum. Civilian Conservation Corps workers replanted nearby prairie species onto a former horse pasture, overseen by university faculty including renowned ecologist Aldo Leopold, botanist Theodore Sperry, mycologist Henry C. Greene, and plant ecologist John T. Curtis. Curtis and his graduate students surveyed the whole of Wisconsin, documenting native species communities and creating the first species lists for tallgrass restorations. Existing prairie remnants, such as locations within pioneer cemeteries and railroad rights-of-way, were located and inventoried by Curtis and his team. The UW Arboretum was the center of tallgrass prairie research through the first half of the 20th century, with the development of the nearby Greene Prairie, Aldo Leopold Shack and Farm, and pioneering techniques like prescribed burning.
The latter-half of the 20th century saw the growth of ecological restoration beyond Wisconsin borders. The 285-hectare Green Oaks Biological Field Station at Knox College began in 1955 under the guidance of zoologist Paul Shepard. It was followed by the 40-hectare Schulenberg Prairie at the Morton Arboretum, started in 1962 by Ray Schulenberg and Bob Betz. Betz then worked with The Nature Conservancy to establish the 260-hectare Fermi National Laboratory tallgrass prairie in 1974.These major tallgrass restoration projects marked the growth of ecological restoration from isolated studies to widespread practice.
Meaning of Heritage Buildings:
“Heritage building” means and includes any building of one or more premises or any part thereof and/or structure and/or artefact which requires conservation and / or preservation for historical and / or architectural and / or artisanary and /or aesthetic and/or cultural and/or environmental and/or ecological purpose and includes such portion of land adjoining such building or part thereof as may be required for fencing or covering or in any manner preserving the historical and/or architectural and/or aesthetic and/or cultural value of such building. “Heritage Precincts” means and includes any space that requires conservation and /or preservation for historical and / or architectural and/or aesthetic and/or cultural and/or environmental and/or ecological purpose. Walls or other boundaries of a particular area or place or building or may enclose such space by an imaginary line drawn around it. “Conservation” means all the processes of looking after a place so as to retain its historical and/or architectural and/or aesthetic and/or cultural significance and includes maintenance, preservation, restoration, reconstruction and adoption or a combination of more than one of these. “Preservation” means and includes maintaining the fabric of a place in its existing state and retarding deterioration. “Restoration” means and includes returning the existing fabric of a place to a known earlier state by removing accretions or by reassembling existing components without introducing new materials. “Reconstruction” means and includes returning a place as nearly as possible to a known earlier state and distinguished by the introduction of materials (new or old) into the fabric. This shall not include either recreation or conjectural reconstruction
Importance of Heritage Buildings:
Heritage sites and buildings can have a very positive influence on many aspects of the way a community develops. Regeneration, housing, education, economic growth and community engagement are examples of the ways in which heritage can make a very positive contribution to community life. This is because:
• The historic environment is a proven source of benefit to local economies, particularly through tourism.
• An attractive heritage environment assists in attracting external investment as well as maintaining existing businesses of all types, not just tourism-related.
• People are very proud of their local history, but don’t always express how much they value a place until it’s threatened. Because it adds character and distinctiveness to an area, heritage is a fundamental in creating a ‘sense of place’ for a community.
• Adaptive reuse of heritage buildings is an important factor in creating sustainable communities.
• Heritage buildings add value to regeneration projects, both in terms the economic and environmental advantage of reuse over new build and in adding character to a precinct.
• Heritage places can be a potent driver for community action.
• Increased community values and greater social inclusion can be achieved through a focus on heritage matters.
• The heritage places are an excellent local educational resource for people of all ages. Learning about the history of a place is a good way of bringing communities together through a shared understanding of the unique cultural identity heritage places give to an area.
Areas where the heritage is understood and valued tend to be better looked after than those where heritage items have no link with the community. Such links help to foster civic responsibility and citizenship and contribute to everyone’s quality of life.
Criteria For listing Heritage Building:
The three key concepts need to be understood to determine whether a property is worthy of listing.
• Historic significance
• Historic integrity
• Historic context
Historic significance is the importance of a property to the history, architecture, archaeology, engineering or culture of a community, region or nation.
In selecting a building, particular attention should be paid to the following:
Association with events, activities or patterns
Association with important persons
Distinctive physical characteristics of design, construction or form, representing work of a master
Potential to yield important information such as illustrating social, economic history, such as railway stations, town halls, clubs, markets, water works, etc.
Technological innovations such as dams, bridges, etc.
Distinct town planning features like squares, streets, avenues, e.g. Raj path in Lutyens’s New Delhi Historic integrity is the authenticity of a property’s historic identity, evidenced by the survival of physical characteristics that existed during the property’s historic period. Historic integrity enables a property to illustrate significant aspects of its past. Not only must a property resemble the historic appearance but it must also retain physical materials, design features and aspects of construction dating from the period when it attained significance. Historic context is information about historic trends and properties grouped by an important theme in the history of a community, region or nation during a particular period of time. A knowledge of historic context enables listers to understand a historic property as a product of time.
Factors Deteriorating Heritage Buildings:
The existence of heritage in our environment has indeed provoked the belief that people came from somewhere and this offers the people the self-confidence to face the future.
Heritage largely defines the identity of a society and it is passed down from one generation to another. In order to pass on to future generations what is currently identified as being of cultural significance today, we must imbibe good conservation practices especially for the heritage buildings in order to prevent them from deterioration and extend the life and basic functions of these buildings.
The heritage buildings constructed in the past that have high historical, architectural, spiritual, social, political and economic values. Similarly, heritage buildings are highly valuable and informative in terms of socio-cultural, socio-political, socio-economical and even technological activities of a specific society or group of individuals.
Heritage buildings differ from modern buildings in the sense that they are anticipated to last permanently. Also, heritage buildings are buildings that for various factors society has decided that they shall be preserved for as long as possible.
Heritage buildings are seriously threatened by environmental agencies such as moisture, intense solar radiation and prevailing winds which change their physical attributes. The major effects of these environmental agencies include discoloration, abrasion, cracks, stains and fungal growth.
Apart from exposure to weather, biochemical agencies also hasten the deterioration of heritage buildings tremendously.
The two major factors responsible for the deterioration of heritage buildings:
Ground salts and water
Chapter 2: Literature Study
Conservation of heritage structures is an interdisciplinary effort, wherein traditional
knowledge on building materials, techniques and specifications are brought to the
realm of current practitioners of conservation engineering, with the intent of merging them
with modern tools and practices. Internationally, it is established practice that structural
safety cannot be compromised in any conservation effort. Formal systems that recognise conservation of heritage structures as an interdisciplinary engineering effort, with structural
safety as a critical determinant, do not exist in India. With one of the largest stocks of heritage structures in the world, lack of adequate quality and quantity of manpower is a serious bottleneck in India in addressing the task of understanding and protecting heritage structures from natural hazards, ageing and weathering effects. More importantly, in a country with strong spiritual roots, the approach to conservation of built heritage has to explore the basis of the ancient building system, the centrality of the spirit in the building activity and the philosophy of non-permanence of the material. Such an approach may be in contrast to established, internationally accepted approaches to conservation. Hence, capacity building in structural safety-centric conservation engineering is a major challenge for India, with an urgent need to identify the existing diffused expertise in relevant sub-areas within conservation and forming a consortium for a holistic approach to the national
grand challenge of protecting heritage structures. To achieve the intended goal, a national
knowledge pool has to be developed by initiating concerted research, education and outreach activities in safety of heritage structures, coordinated and organised through a single national level institute, that can provide the much needed nationally-coordinated technical forum for exchange of ideas and training of stakeholder groups, primarily from
implementing agencies (e.g. Archaeological Survey of India, State Archaeology Departments, etc.) and faculty members of engineering and architecture institutes. As a step to address the national need, IIT Madras is leading an effort to begin a formal approach to address safety of heritage structures through the National Centre for Safety of Heritage Structures (NCSHS). The current paper dwells on the challenges and the need for developing new paradigms in the heritage conservation scenario in India.
The challenge of conservation of cultural heritage in India is besieged by several practical aspects such as the profusion of built heritage in the country, but resource and skill deficit in the formal approach to their conservation. This is due primarily to the lack of critical mass working in the area of heritage preservation, and the lack of focus of mainstream education, fundamental and applied research on this subject.
On the other hand, the approach to conservation in India needs to be interpreted in light of the traditional focus on the spirit of the built form and non-permanence of material, which would be in strong contrast to established western principles of conservation that focus on the built form, interpreted as the receptacle of historical memory. Possibly, a fresh set of conservation guidelines for living monuments is called for.
Holistic preservation of Indian heritage would require recourse to pedagogical changes in school and higher education intended to rediscover the ancient Indian wisdom in arts, sciences and philosophies, which hinges on mainstream fundamental research and R&D in the area. Economic viability of heritage will be a by-product of the process due to a revival of traditional arts and crafts, known popularly as intangible heritage, and initiation of new disciplines.
Heritage structures perform vital role in nation’s history, culture and signify the richness of it. To augment life and enhance strength, their restoration is very important for the future generations to have knowledge about how mankind lived in past ages. Restoration involves investigating, diagnosing and correcting deficiencies and deterioration of any structure. Identification of common defects and problems faced in old structures and devising a systematic approach towards handling these issues is civil engineer’s obligation. A case study throws light on the various problems encountered and the methods employed to tackle them. This paper focuses on such problems and methodology to handle these problems while respecting structure’s cultural integrity with the help of a case study. It also seeks to highlight the need for a greater awareness and the need to take precautionary measures of the immediate effects, and of the long-term management issues of heritage structures.
Deterioration of the structure may be caused due to various reasons, some of which are long life, lack of maintenance, unchecked growth of trees ; creepers on the structures, improper drainage system, irregular inspection, material deterioration and weathering effect etc. Also, modern codes and building standards, observance of cultural context, conservation criteria, attainable benefit, traditional and innovative methods etc. pose major challenges in restoration of heritage structure. The best therapy to reduce decay is preventive maintenance. Adequate maintenance can limit or postpone the need for subsequent intervention. The repair process requires the existing condition of the structure to be identified and its causes of its deterioration. It is also necessary to define how ongoing deteriorative factors should be monitored given the effects of such processes on the rehabilitation of the structure. An understanding of the significance of the structure should be the basis for conservation and reinforcement measures. The design of intervention should be based on a clear understanding of the kinds of actions that were the cause of the damage and decay as well as those that are considered for the analysis of the structure after intervention; because the design will be dependent upon them. The choice between “traditional” and “innovative” techniques should be weighed up on a case-by-case basis and preference given to those that are least invasive and most compatible with heritage values, bearing in mind safety and durability requirements. The removal or alteration of any historic material or distinctive architectural features should be avoided whenever possible. Deteriorated structures whenever possible should be repaired rather than replaced.
Historic structures pass on a message coming through the ages. It is the responsibility of the present generation to carry it forward to the future generations. This gift may be lost if the integrity of the original structure is destroyed to meet the present demands. As these structures are closely related to local social and economic conditions, methods which may be less destructive and of original fabric need to be devised to approach these issues. There is tremendous educational and practical potential to be realized in the area of restoration. An architectural, engineering, management as well as social approach is required for such type of endeavour. Proper education and training for such kind of works is today’s need. Involvement of more practitioners and technical professionals is required. The potential of this field needs to be realized by integrating and contextualizing the spheres and work of conservation, not only as a self-contained science or technological endeavour but also as a social practice.
Rajasthan is the most beautiful and vibrant state of India. The unique characteristic of its architecture is very popular in the whole world. The Rajasthan architecture is significantly depending on Rajput architecture school which was mixture of Mughal and Hindu structural design. Grand havelis, astonishing forts and elaborately carved temples are the vital portion of architectural heritage of Rajasthan. Few of most striking and splendid forts along with palaces with parched Aravalli land clearly depicts history of Rajasthan’s celebrated heritage. Almost every city of the spectacular desert land Rajasthan is lined with fabulous forts and palaces built by various rulers and architects. These forts and palaces were generally built outside the walled city over the high hills to protect the city the state of Rajasthan hosts few of splendid palaces and forts of the whole world. Ornamented havelis, elaborately carved temples and also magnificent forts are section of the Rajasthan’s architectural heritage. The artistic builders designed major architectural styles which are located in cities like Jaisalmer, Udaipur, Jaipur and Jodhpur. The most significant architectural designs in Rajasthan include Jantar Mantar, Dilwara Temples, Lake Palace Hotel, and City Palaces, Chittorgarh Fort, Deeg palace and Jaisalmer Havelis. The glory is well conserved in the Rajasthan and in the majestic forts and palaces. Enduring the unmerciful desert winds and oppressing heat of the scorching sun, they have stood unshakable against many-a-sieges and have provided protection to the rulers in their time of conflict. Now, they have been opened to the tourists who come here to see a wonderful presentation of their rich heritage and splendid artistic architecture. Many of these forts and palaces retain their old allure and ritual. Some of the royal residences have been now turned into heritage hotels, where the visitors can still experience the magic of India’s imperial past. Important Artefacts of Rajasthan Architecture are: Havelis, Chhatris, Jharokhas, and Stepwells.
Conservation of Heritage buildings is quite different from new construction. Conservation needs preliminary study of existing structure in detail and the stages it has passed in past.
Performing experiments can be highly sensitive. The burning demand of today’s societies is to carry out Restoration & Conservation of these mighty structures. For that identifying
the damage, progress of damage, any immediate risk needing attention and environmental effect is necessary. Modern science has opened up scope by latest tools. Today strong
need is to have a compromise between Quantitative, Qualitative and Historical analysis for restoration of historic building and a model spectrum is required to be developed
giving due weightage to all variables for the value of individual structure. Data collection has vital role to play for conservation and requires very precise and scientific involvement. Existing fabric has to be restored; new one should be compatible and in resemblance with minimum intervention to the old one. Heritage has always attracted
tourism nationally as well as internationally strengthening local and national economy. Heritage may be categorized as Monuments, Sites, Buildings, Artefacts, Cultural Landscape and Intangible Heritage. Religious, Art History and Architecture, Scientific and Technical, Nationalist, Domestic, Economic and Development, Re-creational and Humanistic are its paradigms. Various international agencies independently, under UN
cover and national agencies, regional authorities and NGOS are working in this field. There is need of active coordination of all these administrative and executive agencies so that uniformity in policy of conservation is formed. Under the same cover techniques should be idealised for utilities on regional bases and by facility to be provided to all concern interested in matter via information-technology.
Chapter 3: Objectives
The primary objective of restoration is to solve the structural problems, and to increase the life span of the historic structure.
to renovate the building in order to attract tourism.
To create awareness about the historic sites.
To maintain the value and importance of historic structures
To maintain cleanliness in the fort.
To repair and restore it in such a way that the originality of thee fort does not get affected.
Chapter 4: Study Area
A leaf from History:
A Portuguese traveler named Barbosa during his visit to Gujarat in 1514 has described Surat as a city of great trade in all classes of merchandise.
Shortly before Barbosa was in Gujarat, Surat is said to have been burnt by the Portuguese in 1512.
Surat reportedly suffered from a wholly unprovoked, and piratical raid, in 1530, a second time by the Portuguese under the leadership of Antonio da Silvaria.
The Ahmedabad king Sultan Mahmud Shah III (1538-1554), who was very much annoyed by these frequent destructions of Surat, ordered for building a very strong castle and entrusted the work to Safi Agha.
Problems at Site:
wild vegetation piercing through the walls and construction materiel strewn away
Huge trees have inserted their roots into the walls and interstices of joints
Deterioration of wooden slabs and supports
Deterioration of the bricks used back then
Foul smell of urine and deterioration
Structures were weakened
Restoration method which are to be used are as follows:
Stitching of wall
New arch will be providing
Chemical treatment for anti-terminate for wooden slab
Lime grouting for cracks
M-S for slab
External support will provide
Stone: Roof, bracket, walls, railing, jalis,and different component are with yellow ochre sandstone or in red Jodhpur stone. Project stone are used from debris and from new carving work, for flooring, chajjas, railing, jalis and change pieces where original component are missing or broken or cant be repair.
Lime: In the conservation work they use fat lime concrete because of its enduring use and quality in historic building. Different types of lime were used according to different requirement like plastering, terracing, and masonry, and so on the proper slaking of lime is difficult to production and gain lustrous plaster. Lime was soaked for six months.
Sand: for lime mortar use coarse sand and mix it with lime..Grit: For make hard base for flooring , roofing , use the grit.
Gypsum: Gypsum was used for urgent strengthening.
Mortar mixes: For blinding material in previous time they used jiggery, and guggal. To make waterproof mortar they use methi.
Wood: Acacia, Sal and teak woods were used.
Glass: Historically, stained glass was used in stone jalis in some of the palaces. Missing or broken pieces were replaced after proper research had been carried out, subject to availability of the correct glass.
Steel: Historically, For fastering building component use iron, the Joint and bracket are found damaged due to scouring of iron. To eliminate these problem we can use stainless steel.
Glass: Windows float glass are used to bring natural light in the fort to light up the Dark areas
5.1Use of Lime Concrete:
A concrete made from a mixture of lime, sand, and gravel is said to be as lime concrete. It was widely used before the lime was replaced by Portland cement.
Why Use Of Lime Concrete:
Lime allow building to breath:
Lime are promoted by the society for the protection of Ancient building for repair. Research by architect and conservator proves that lime are vapour permeable and allow building to breath. This reduce the risk of trapped moisture and consequent damage to building fabric.
Lime provide comfortable environment:
Porous and open textured material like lime plaster stabilize internal humidity of a building absorbing and releasing moisture. Due to this environment become more comfortable and reduce surface condensation and mould growth.
Ecological benefits of lime:
Embodied energy of lime is less than cement.
Carbon dioxide is absorb by lime during setting process.
Lime can be produced on small scale.
Full re-use of other material is possible in the gentle binding properties lime.
Clay soil stabilize by very low portion of quicklime.
Lime blind gently with early adhesion:
Lime particle are smaller than cement particle, lime is sticky material. Because of the fine particle size, lime mixes penetrate minute voids in the background more deeply than other materials. Stickiness of lime gave good adhesion to other surface.
Protection of adjacent materials:
Lime mortars contain high free lime are permeable and porous. Lime mortar handle moisture movement through the building fabric and protecting them from harmful salts. The affected materials are timber, iron, stone and masonry
Lime render assist drying out by evaporation:
Moisture trap in building fabric by dense and impermeable renders. Decay mechanism are generate by trapped moisture. Local stress are create by dense renders used in conjunction with softer material or on weaker background.
Lime mortar remain smooth and moldable, against the suction and may experience from porous building materials, called workability. Good workability increase good workmanship and help to gain good bonding to other materials. That’s why lime is such a pleasure to use. Widely graded and sharp aggregate are allow by lime due to workability. That increased both performance and aesthetic finishing.
Durable and have stood with long time:
By using lime carefully it can be exceptionally durable. Caesar’s tower at Warwick castle is withstand in good condition over 600 years, and many other monument stood longer like Pantheon temple of Rome have 43 metres span dome of lime concrete.
Unique and aesthetic combining of a soft texture with lustre can be gain by double reflection light through calcite crystals. The graceful softness appearance of lime based materials gave visual indication of their permeability, workability and soft binding properties.
Because of lime’s disinfectant qualities lime is extensively used in form of lime wash and also use for water purification. Lime mortars, renders, plasters and limewash are used to create comfort condition in building since thousands of year.
Self-healing properties of lime:
When the building made by lime are subjected to small movement it develop many fine cracks rather than large cracks which happen in stiffer cement-bound buildings. And when water evaporate lime deposited and start to heal that cracks. This process called self-healing.
Indefinite shelf lime:
When non-hydraulic lime stored without access of air it gain indefinite shelf life, usually as putty under water or in sealed containers. So the quality of lime is increased with