Indonesia has the second highest level of biodiversity in the world after Brazil
Indonesia has the second highest level of biodiversity in the world after Brazil (Lester, 1997). Therefore, Indonesia becomes one of the main tourist’s destination from around the world.
The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2017 ranks Indonesia 14th (out of 136 countries) for its natural resources and 23rd for its cultural resources and business travel, both capturing the principal reasons to travel. However, Indonesia is lagging on other indicators such ranks 131st for environmental sustainability and 108th for health and hygiene. Therefore, it can be concluded that despite the potencies in Indonesia’s tourism industry, at the same time, Indonesia is facing some threats such as environmental sustainability, and health and hygiene issues.
It is also mentioned in a report entitled “Environmental and Social Management Framework” (2017), that there are four key constraints that hinder the development of tourism in Indonesia and prevent it from reaching its fullest potential, namely: (i) continued poor access and quality of infrastructure and services for citizens, visitors and businesses; (ii) outside of Bali, limited tourism workforce skills and private-sector tourism services and facilities; (iii) weak enabling environment for private investment and business entry; and (iv) weak inter-ministry/ agency, central-local and public-private coordination and weak implementation capabilities for tourism development in general, and for monitoring and preserving the natural and cultural assets in particular. This list represents are the main constraints to be resolved to enhance Indonesia’s potential in the tourist industry sector.
As the tourism industry in Indonesia is based upon plentiful natural environments and numerous cultural heritage sites, the sustainability of tourism is linked directly to the actions that protect and maintain the quality of the same.
This research focuses on sustainable tourism development namely YSR. YSR. officially called Yogyakarta, is a popular tourist destination after Bali and Jakarta. Located in the middle of Java island, it takes only about 1 hour and 15 minutes to reach from Bali (train and ferry). Yogyakarta is a famous icon of Javanese culture and the Sultanate Palace (1450s) was constructed there more than 550 years ago. Enriched with Javanese culture attractions, historical places and marvelous natural resources, the interests to visit Yogyakarta keeps growing rapidly year by year from both the domestic and international tourists’.
The great potential of the tourism industry in YSRYSR is underlined by being awarded several international tourist awards. One such award is the ASEAN Sustainable Tourism award that Nglanggeran Tourism Village, Yogyakarta, received in the beginning of 2018. This achievement is not well broadcasted by the government, particularly in other local areas to further enhance the sustainably of tourism development. Therefore, the role and strategies of local government in YSR needs improvement and innovations.