Internet banking (or E-banking) means any user with a personal computer and a browser can get connected to his bank -s website to perform any of the virtual banking functions. In internet banking system the bank has a centralized database that is web-enabled. All the services that the bank has permitted on the internet are displayed in menu. Any service can be selected and further interaction is dictated by the nature of service. Once the branch offices of bank are interconnected through terrestrial or satellite links, there would be no physical identity for any branch. It would a borderless entity permitting anytime, anywhere and anyhow banking. The delivery channels include direct dialup connections, private networks, public networks, etc. with the popularity of computers, easy access to Internet and World Wide Web (WWW), Internet is increasingly used by banks as a channel for receiving instructions and delivering their products and services to their customers. This form of banking is generally referred to as Internet Banking, although the range of products and services offered by different banks vary widely both in their content and sophistication.
Meaning of E-Banking
E-bank is the electronic bank that provides the financial service for the individual client by means of Internet.
Observation Of Study
Definition of E-Banking
Online banking allows a user to execute financial transactions via the internet. Online banking is also known as “internet banking” or “web banking.” An online bank offers customers just about every service traditionally available through a local branch, including deposits, which is done online or through the mail, and online bill payment.
Advantages of Online Banking
Convenience is a major advantage of online banking. Basic banking transactions such as paying bills and transferring funds between accounts can easily be performed at times convenient to consumers. In effect, consumers can perform banking transactions 24 hours-a-day, seven-days a week. Online banking is fast and efficient. Funds can be transferred between accounts almost instantly, especially if the two accounts are held at the same banking institution. Banking accounts can be monitored more closely thanks to online banking. This allows consumers to keep their accounts safe. Around-the-clock access to banking information provides early detection of fraudulent activity that has the potential to cause financial or damage loss. Online banking allows for the opening and closing of fixed deposit and recurring deposit accounts that typically offer higher rates of interest.
Disadvantages of Online Banking
For a novice online banking customer, using systems for the first time may present challenges that prevent transactions from being processed. Although online banking security is continually improving, such accounts are still vulnerable when it comes to hacking. Consumers are advised to use their data plans, rather than public Wi-Fi networks when using online banking, to prevent unauthorized access. Additionally, online banking is dependent on a reliable internet connection. Connectivity issues from time-to-time may make it difficult to determine if banking transactions have been successfully processed. On occasion, consumers may prefer face-to-face interactions for more complex banking issues.
E-Banking Support Services
A Large number of financial institutions maintain sites on the world wide web. Some websites are strictly informational, while other also offer customers the ability to perform financial transactions, such as paying bills or transferring funds between accounts.
Wireless E-banking is a delivery channel that can extend the reach and enhance the convenience of Internet banking products and services. Wireless banking occurs when customers access a financial institution’s network(s) using cellular phones, pagers, and personal digital assistants (or similar devices) through telecommunication companies’ wireless networks. Wireless banking services in the United States typically supplement a financial institution’s e-banking products and services.
Electronic person-to-person payments, also known as e-mail money, permit consumers to send “money” to any person or business with an e-mail address. Under this scenario, a consumer electronically instructs the person-to-person payment service to transfer funds to another individual. The payment service then sends an e-mail notifying the individual that the funds are available and informs him or her of the methods available to access the funds including requesting a check, transferring the funds to an account at an insured financial institution, or retransmitting the funds to someone else. Person-to-person payments are typically funded by credit card charges transfer from the consumer’s account at a financial institution. Sincen either the payee nor the payer in the transaction has to have an account with the payment service, such services may be offered by an insured financial institution, but are frequently offered by other businesses as well.
Banking Services through Internet:
1. The Basic Level Service is the banks’ web sites which disseminate information on different products and services offered to customers and members of public in general. It may receive and reply to customer’s queries through e-mail;
2. In the next level are Simple Transactional Web sites which allows customers to submit their instructions, applications for different services, queries in their account balances, etc. but do not permit any fund-based transactions on their accounts;
3. The third level of Internet banking service are offered by Fully Transactional Web sites which allow the customers to operate on their accounts for transfer of funds, payment of different bills, subscribing to other products of the bank and to transact purchase and sale of securities, etc. The above forms of Internet banking service the customer or by new banks, who deliver banking service primarily through Internet or other electronic delivery channels as the value added services. Some of these banks are known as ‘Virtual’ banks or ‘Internet only’ banks and may not have physical presence in acountry despite offering different banking services.
The Indian Scenario: –
•Internet banking, both as a medium of delivery of banking services and as a strategic tool for business development.
• At present, the total internet users in the country are estimated at 9 lakh. However, this is expected to grow exponentially to 90 lakh by 2003. Only about 1 percent of Internet users did banking online in 1998. This is increased to16.7 percent in March 2000.- (India Research, May 29, 2000, Kotak Securities)
• Cost of banking service through the Internet from a fraction of costs through conventional methods. Rough estimates assume teller cost at Re.1 per transaction, ATM transaction cost at 45 paise, phone banking at 35 paise, debit cards at 20 paise and Internet banking at 10 paise per transaction.
Plastic Cards as Media for Payment: –
There are four types of plastic cards being used as mediafor making payments. These are:
1. Credit Card
2. Debit Card
3. Smart Card
4. ATM Card
1. Credit Cards: –
The credit card enables the cardholders to: Purchase any item like clothes, jewellery, railway/air tickets, etc. Pay bills for dining in a restaurant or boarding and lodging in hotel
Avail of any service like car rental, etc.
2. Debit Cards: –
A debit card is issued on payment of a specified amount by the issuing company like a telephone company to a customer on cash payment or on debiting his account by a bank.
Thus it is like an electronic purse, which can be read and debited by the required amount.
It may be noted that while through a credit card, the customer first makes a purchase or avails service and pays later on, but for getting the debit card, a customer has to first pay the due amount and then make a purchase or avail the service. For this reason, debit card are not as popular as credit cards.
3. Smart Cards: –
Smart Cards have a built-in microcomputer chip, which can be used for storing and processing information. For example, a person can have a smart card from a bank with the specified amount stored electronically on it. As he goes on making transactions with the help of the card, the balance keeps on reducing electronically. When the specified amount is utilized by the customer, he can approach the bank to get his card validated for a further specified amount. Such cards are used for paying small amounts like telephone calls, petrol bills, etc.
4. ATM Cards: –
The card contains a PIN (Personal Identification Number) which is selected by the customer or conveyed to the customer and enables him to withdraw cash up to the transaction limit for the day. He can also deposit cash or cheque.
VARIOUS FORMS OF E-BANKING:
Internet Banking lets you handle many banking transactions via your personal computer. For instance, you may use your computer to view your account balance, request transfers between accounts, and pay bills electronically.
Internet banking system and method in which a personal computer is connected by a network service provider directly to a host computer system of a bank such that customer service requests can be processed automatically without need for intervention by customer service representatives. The system is capable of distinguishing between those customer service requests which are capable of automated fulfillment and those requests which require handling by a customer service representative. The system is integrated with the host computer system of the bank so that the remote banking customer can access other automated services of the bank. The method of the invention includes the steps of inputting a customer banking request from among a menu of banking requests at a remote personnel computer; transmitting the banking requests to a host computer over a network; receiving the request at the host computer; identifying the type of customer banking request received; automatic logging of the service request, comparing the received request to a stored table of request types, each of the request types having an attribute to indicate whether the request type is capable of being fulfilled by a customer service representative or by an automated system; and, depending upon the attribute, directing the request either to a queue for handling by a customer service representative or to a queue for processing by an automated system.
AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINES (ATM):
An unattended electronic machine in a public place, connected to a data system and related equipment and activated by a bank customer to obtain cash withdrawals and other banking services. Also called automatic teller machine, cash machine; Also called money machine.
An automated teller machine or automatic teller machine (ATM) is an electronic computerized telecommunications device that allows a financial institution’s customers to directly use a secure method of communication to access their bank accounts, order or make cash withdrawals (or cash advances using a credit card) and check their account balances without the need for a human bank teller (or cashier in the UK). Many ATMs also allow people to deposit cash or cheques, transfer money between their bank accounts, top up their mobile phones’ pre-paid accounts or even buy postage stamps.
On most modern ATMs, the customer identifies him or herself by inserting a plastic card with a magnetic stripe or a plastic smartcard with a chip, that contains his or her account number. The customer then verifies their identity by entering a pass code, often referred to as a PIN (Personal Identification Number) of four or more digits. Upon successful entry of the PIN, the customer may perform a transaction.
If the number is entered incorrectly several times in a row (usually three attempts per card insertion), some ATMs will attempt retain the card as a security precaution to prevent an unauthorised user from discovering the PIN by guesswork. Captured cards are often destroyed if the ATM owner is not the card issuing bank, as noncustomer’s identities cannot be reliably confirmed.
The Indian market today has approximately more than 17,000 ATM’s.
Undertaking a host of banking related services including financial transactions from the convenience of customers chosen place anywhere across the GLOBE and any time of date and night has now been made possible by introducing on-line Tele banking services. By dialing the given Tele banking number through a landline or a mobile from anywhere, the customer can access his account and by following the user-friendly menu, entire banking can be done through Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system. With sufficient numbers of hunting lines made available, customer call will hardly fail. The system is bi-lingual and has following facilities offered
• Automatic balance voice out for the default account.
• Balance inquiry and transaction inquiry in all
• Inquiry of all term deposit account
• Statement of account by Fax, e-mail or ordinary mail.
• Cheque book request
• Stop payment which is on-line and instantaneous
• Transfer of funds with CBS which is automatic and instantaneous
• Utility Bill Payments
• Renewal of term deposit which is automatic and instantaneous
• Voice out of last five transactions.
A smart card usually contains an embedded 8-bit microprocessor (a kind of computer chip). The microprocessor is under a contact pad on one side of the card. Think of the microprocessor as replacing the usual magnetic stripe present on a credit card or debit card.
The microprocessor on the smart card is there for security. The host computer and card reader actually “talk” to the microprocessor. The microprocessor enforces access to the data on the card.
The chips in these cards are capable of many kinds of transactions. For example, a person could make purchases from their credit account, debit account or from a stored account value that’s reload able. The enhanced memory and processing capacity of the smart card is many times that of traditional magnetic-stripe cards and can accommodate several different applications on a single card. It can also hold identification information, which means no more shuffling through cards in the wallet to find the right one — the Smart Card will be the only one needed.
Smart cards can also be used with a smart card reader attachment to a personal computer to authenticate a user.
Smart cards are much more popular in Europe than in the U.S. In Europe the health insurance and banking industries use smart cards extensively. Every German citizen has a smart card for health insurance. Even though smart cards have been around in their modern form for at least a decade, they are just starting to take off in the U.S.
Debit cards are also known as check cards. Debit cards look like credit cards or ATM (automated teller machine) cards, but operate like cash or a personal check. Debit cards are different from credit cards. While a credit card is a way to “pay later,” a debit card is a way to “pay now.” When you use a debit card, your money is quickly deducted from your checking or savings account.
Debit cards are accepted at many locations, including grocery stores, retail stores, gasoline stations, and restaurants. You can use your card anywhere merchants display your card’s brand name or logo. They offer an alternative to carrying a checkbook or cash.
• An e-Cheque is the electronic version or representation of paper cheque.
• The Information and Legal Framework on the E-Cheque is the same as that of the paper cheque’s.
• It can now be used in place of paper cheques to do any and all remote transactions.
• An E-cheque work the same way a cheque does, the cheque writer “writes” the e-Cheque using one of many types of electronic devices and “gives” the e-Cheque to the payee electronically. The payee “deposits” the Electronic Cheque receives credit, and the payee’s bank “clears” the e-Cheque to the paying bank. The paying bank validates the e-Cheque and then “charges” the check writer’s account for the check
OTHER FORMS OF ELECTRONIC BANKING
• Direct Deposit
• Electronic Bill Payment
• Electronic Check Conversion
• Cash Value Stored, Etc.