INTRODUCTION Increase in solid waste has become major problem in our modern society due to increase in population
Increase in solid waste has become major problem in our modern society due to increase in population. The people remain as the major producers of solid waste which is very hazardous to the environment, health and economy if the solid waste is not managed properly e.g uncontrolled throwing of the waste and badly maintained waste results in growth of diseases as well as increase the presence of unwanted species such as rats and mosquitoes and bad odour created around the garbage area leading to unaesthetic conditions which in turn decrease the market value of the area (Hussain .T, 2007). According to Palnitkar. S (2002) defines solid waste as non-liquid waste materials arising from domestic, trade, commercial, agricultural, industrial activities and from public services.
Solid waste management is a multidisciplinary field requiring information about the physical, environmental, social, and economic implications of a SWM system. Adequate, accurate and current information is necessary to support a solid waste planning and management system. The core solution for efficient delivery of municipal services lies in the linking and proper management of the available data (Ogra, 2003). Considering the amount and complexity of such data, computer based systems should be considered to facilitate storage, retrieval and general data handling (Toftner 1973). GIS is one of the most sophisticated modern technologies to capture, store, manipulate, analyse display spatial data (Chang 2008)- thereby enabling policymakers to link disparate sources of information, perform sophisticated analysis, visualise trends and project outcomes. MSU requires a Web Based GIS API for improved interpretation of SWM data for effective and efficient service delivery
MSU Main Campus has estimate of 20 000 population including students and staff. Major producers of waste are students.
Midlands State University is a fast growing campus as a result of increase in number of student enrolled and more degree programmes offered. This triggers introduction of more restaurants, hostels, classrooms (lecture rooms), libraries, dining halls, workshops and laboratories. As the institution grows, the amount waste creation activities also increase, resulting in ineffective and inefficient sanitary issues such as unwise positioning of bins, omission of waste bins in waste transportation process.
Current service available for Waste Management System
The garbage collection process at MSU make use of trucks which are 5 tonne heavy vehicle. These trucks collect garbage 2 times a day. They usually collect garbage at morning 8am to 9am and in the afternoon at 1pm to 2pm.
At MSU there are three zones which the main campus which is the largest part, the new halls of residence of China (girls hostels) and new halls of residence Japan (boys hostels). In the morning there is more solid waste because there will be more activity from cleaning and maintenance group and in the afternoon much of the waste comes from food remains and papers. There are sites which needs special services for solid waste to collected more than two times a day which main admission block, dining hall and tuck shop sites.
There is no segregation of waste, therefore; there’s no plan regarding amount and generation of recyclable waste (Hussain .T, 2007). It is also observed that in most cases the waste spreads around bins because of animals spreading waste in search for food or waste fells partially outside the bin when people through their waste, which results in the accumulation of waste around bins (Hussain .T, 2007).
Types of bins used at MSU are steel drums, iron cages, card box (in offices), plastic bins with lids and most of them do not have lids. There are several open dump pits in New Halls of Residence (Japan and China Hostels) area. There is also cleaning service crew who are responsible of cleaning hostels, lecture rooms, pavements, sport field, streets, toilets, offices, laboratories. Each cleaner is assigned to a zone or area to work on campus.
Defects of Current Solid Waste Management
The issue of waste is not only because of increase quantities but also largely because of inadequate management system (Tinmaz.E and Demir.I, 2005). One of the major management issues in solid waste management is improving methods for interpretation of data. Almost all of factors related to solid waste management have a spatial component as well as non-spatial data (Hussain .T, 2007). Manual strategies used for analysis of the many factors are long and tedious work and in some problems it can be troublesome to solve them while not the aid of computer software system, e.g. optimization software package, and additionally there’s chance of merging spatial and non-spatial information (Hussain .T, 2007). In most cases solid waste information and records don’t seem to be managed properly and are usually exist isolated form. As a result of the improper management of the information and records, it becomes tough to assess system practicality and potency.
As a result of improper management, the commonly observed problems are garbage is not lifted at regular intervals, waste bins are most of the time in a pitiful condition lying full of garbage without being cleaned and also bins are either uncovered or not lying upright, no segregation of solid waste categories like paper, glass, polythene, food material etc, bad odour is created around the garbage area, making an unbearable environment, shortage of manpower, equipment and machinery. Problems related to poor spatial analysis are; no route plans prepared for transportation of waste from different locations to landfill or dumpsites which results in omission of other during waste collection and improper waste bin allocation such as small bins are provided in places of high solid waste generation rate, bins are unnecessarily provided on some roads, people throw their waste in open dumps because there is no waste bin close enough to them and waste bins located near water bodies may contaminate it (Hussain .T, 2007).
How to improve the SWM System of MSU
Considering the amount and complexity of such data, computer based systems should be considered to facilitate storage, retrieval and general data handling (Toftner 1973). GIS is one of the most sophisticated modern technologies to capture, store, manipulate, analyse display spatial data thereby enabling policymakers to link disparate sources of information, perform sophisticated analysis, visualise trends and project outcomes (Chang 2008).
A GIS is different from other information systems, because it integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the advantages of visual and geographic analysis through maps (Kashid. S.D, et al, 2015). GIS plays a key role in maintaining account data to facilitate collection operations such as SWM services by analysing suitable place to locate new bins; planning routes for vehicles transporting waste from residential, commercial and industrial to transfer stations and from transfer stations to landfills; locating new landfills and monitoring the landfill and dump sites (Kashid. S.D, et al, 2015).
They are other areas with people who generates waste which will produce an odour smell which attracts flies thereby disease outbreak like diarrhoea and cholera are caused. These waste bins needs a special attention. Therefore a least cost path to collect these bins in needed to be produced using GIS. GIS can be effectively used fot the new route identification with the help of various GIS layers to identify a shortest route which will cover less diatance and covers maximum waste bin locations with a less overlaps (Kashid. S.D, et al, 2015). GIS provides a solution to choose shortest route for collection of waste (Kashid. S.D, et al, 2015).
As according to Hussain .T,(2007), Solid waste management includes the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer, transport, processing and disposal of solid waste . The objective of this project is to demonstrate the application of geographic information system (GIS) in different areas related to solid waste management in order to increase system efficiency, reduce the waste management workload, save time and cost, answer where to locate more bins as per population distribution analysis, effective optimisation of route for moving solid waste and as well as its use as a decision support system.
This chapter discuss the problems in SWM associated with different countries, cultures and institutions. It will also cover how the application of GIS managed to solve and made an effective and efficient SWM system.
Studied carried out by Visvanathan et al., (2001) shows that in Asia waste disposal is a serious problem due to uncontrolled and unmonitored urbanization, and lack of financial and human resources trained in SWM system. Bangladesh is also experiencing the problems of solid waste management as bins are not located sufficiently along the road so it results in waste scattered over the area (Syed, 2006). There are no sufficient infrastructure and resources for the SWM in many Urban Councils of the developing countries country, and there are no enough and suitable services to dispose most of the solid waste from households and industries (Levien et al. 2000).
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