# LEAD PROPONENT AILYN TIBAY MASINSIN MEMBER MC CARLO VIDANES TRINIDAD MEMBER EDITH SA

LEAD PROPONENT AILYN TIBAY MASINSIN

MEMBER MC CARLO VIDANES TRINIDAD

MEMBER EDITH SA. DELOS SANTOS

TITLE OF RESEARCH EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPED MODULE IN SELECTED TOPICS IN MATHEMAATICS 10 ON THE ALTERNATIVE REINFORCEMENT COURSE (Project ARC)

SCHOOL PILILLA NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

I. TITLE

EFFECTIVENESS OF DEVELOPED MODULE IN SELECTED TOPICS IN

MATHEMATICS 10 ON THE ALTERNATIVE REINFORCEMENT

COURSE (Project ARC)

II. ABSTRACTThe researchers decided to design a module in selected topics in Mathematics 10 that is used for the Alternative Reinforcement Course because they believe that this device will encourage the students to become interested in learning. Ultimately, the study sought to test the effectiveness of the developed module on Alternative Reinforcement Course (Project ARC) in Mathematics 10. The research questions that guided the conduct of this study focused on: 1) the level of performance of the students in selected topics in Mathematics 10 as revealed by the pre-test and post-test results with respect to Arithmetic Sequence, Geometric Sequence, Polynomial Equation, Polynomial Functions, Geometry, Permutations and Combinations and Probability; 2) the level of effectiveness of the developed module in selected topics in Mathematics 10 on the Alternative reinforcement Course (Project ARC) with respect to Language and Style, Organization and Presentation and Usefulness; and 3) significant difference on the level of performance of the respondents before and after the exposure of developed module in selected topics in Mathematics 10 with respect to above mentioned topics. The study used One-shot experimental method of research, utilizing the module for the Alternative Reinforcement Course (Project ARC) to improve the performance of the 32 out of 545 grade 10 students which visibly got lower grades in their first grading period. The data were gathered through the test questionnaire. The weighted mean, standard deviation, and t-test were used to quantitatively analyze the data. The study concluded that: 1) the developed module for alternative reinforcement course developed the performance of the struggling grade 10 students and bridges the gap of the students learning; 2) both groups of respondents have common observation with regard to different aspects. The resemblances in the evaluation on the level of effectiveness only prove that the developed module concluded that the applicability and effectiveness of module could be used in teaching mathematics subjects; and 3) as revealed by the pre-test and post-test result, the use of module in teaching Mathematics 10 is sufficient to enhance the performance of the students.

KEYWORDS: Effectiveness, Developed Module, Performance, Reinforcement

Mathematics, Secondary, Teaching and Learning

III. Acknowledgment

The researchers acknowledge with deepest gratitude the contributions of the following valuable persons:

Dr. Pitsberg B. De Rosas, Public Schools District Supervisor-Pililla, for providing the researchers unflinching encouragement and support in various ways;

To the research experts of Pililla National High School Mrs. Nova H. Ariston and Mr. Elmerson M. Paulete, for their detailed review, constructive criticism and excellence advice during the preparation of the study;

All parents and student participants involve in the study for their patience and understanding and giving them the opportunity to fulfil the study.

Above all, to our God Almighty, who gave strength, guidance and inspiration to the researchers for them to work with direction.IV. Context and Rationale

Mathematics is considered the mother of all learning in both arts and sciences. It is important in almost every field: measurement in fashion, angles in sports, technology and economics. This perspective on mathematics has gained more attention with the rapid advances of information and communication. Mathematics is not just computation but a tool for understanding structures, relationships and patterns to produce solutions for complex real life problems. Mathematics is a necessity for people of all ages to be successful in life.

Mathematical competency is of prime importance in everyday life, and is necessary for simple but essential tasks such as counting, reading the clock, and for budgeting time and money resources. Moreover, numeracy is related to longer-term educational, occupational, physical and mental health outcomes, as well as to the economic status of countries (Fuchs 2009; Gross 2009).

Today, mathematical methods pervade literally every field of human endeavour and play a fundamental role in economic development of a country. In our journey towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good performance in Mathematics at all levels of schooling. Unfortunately, based on the result of National Achievement Test from year 2004 to 2013, a performance of students in Mathematics from the past decade at the end of secondary education has not improved. Subject difficulties exist in many of the students in passing days because of the complexity in using different symbols and computations. Hence, students find it hard to study in traditional way especially when it deals with mathematical concepts. They find it hard if the said subject is not properly taught. Difficulties exist to because they forget previously learned concepts and skills that are needed for new skills to be learned.

This is the reason why students have a hard time understanding the Mathematics subject. Student’s memory span is very short and they don’t use much capacity of their brains. They just rely on the surface knowledge rather than dig more on its core.

Despite the usefulness of mathematics in daily life, there are some factors that adversely affect the students’ ability to understand and apply mathematics concepts.

As revealed by Adedeji Tella (2007) in her study, various factors have been adduced for poor performance of students in mathematics. The interest of students in mathematics have been related to the volume of work completed, students task orientation and skill acquisition, students personality and self-concept, feeling of inadequacy, motivation and self-confidence, anxiety, poor facilities, equipment and instructional materials for effective teaching, use of traditional chalk and talk methods, large pupils to teacher ratio, mathematics fright/phobia and so on. According to Wentzel as cited also by Tella (2007), interest in activities tends to increase the likelihood that individuals formulate goals relating to that activity and invest time and effort to achieve them.

Moreover, individual characteristics such as intelligence, cognitive styles, and personality play an important role in learning and instruction as does the context of learning.

Likewise, students have different learning styles, it is the task of the teachers to teach lessons that will help students to improve this styles. In connection to these, the Department of Education aims to lead young Filipino in the discovery of their own potential through the academe provided for every Filipino enabling them to create their own destiny to the global community.

With the passing of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act schools were forced to incorporate data driven models of instruction to all students based on their individual needs and show student growth as measured by nationwide assessments (Lembke, Hampton, and Beyers, 2012).

“As teachers we tend to think that teaching is all about teachers and our role; in fact the most important aspects of the educational process are the students and what they learn” (A. H. Sequeira 2012). An educational system is explicitly based on the quest, what to teach and how to teach. “What to teach” means the learning materials. The continuum of learning materials swings from linguistic to scientific knowledge. The choice of contents and subject from the multifarious branches of knowledge is subjected to social needs.

Among all approaches aimed at reducing poor Mathematics achievement, adaption of appropriate methods of teaching appears to be more rewarding. It is the need for mathematical understanding and instruction as an important aspect for the enhancement of every individual’s knowledge. The researchers know that through compiling this kind of mathematical operation, it would be an advance information that would help anyone, most specially the students, teachers and even the researchers to attain abundant information and knowledge, which could develop their self-awareness around them.

Module is a form of self-instructional package and thus regarded as relatively recent phenomena. It enables the learners to have a control over his learning and accepts greater responsibility for learning. Since strategy demands greater maturity on the part of the learner, the module is more appropriate for more matured students.

Modular approach is a self-contained package dealing with one specific subject in convenient form, so that the learner can complete it at his own pace independently or small groups. It is so structured that the learner can identify the objectives, select material and method and evaluate his own accomplishment.

II. Innovations, Intervention and Strategy

Research indicates that there is a no universal approach for teaching, and no method of educational methods is better than the others except in certain circumstances. Current education practises may be invalid nowadays; Perhaps conditions in the past in teaching students were restricted on teacher- Blackboard and text book. While nowadays we have population and cognitive explosions. Thus, people are forced to resort to self-learning programs, technology employment. Consequently, the need has risen to rely upon teaching approaches which are far from conventional ways of teacher as well as school. And to be more proper to IT era and the module is one of this progress means.

In connection to this, according to Laqui as cited by Alelaimat and Ghoneem (2012), educators agree that the best teaching approaches is the one which lead to better education, and help teacher to succeed in initiating the favoured changes with students, furthermore, this teaching approach includes planned procedures which teacher utilizes in dealing with his students in order to make education easy and smooth.

For these reasons, the researchers decided to design a module in selected topics in Mathematics 10 that is used for the Alternative Reinforcement Course because they believe that this device will encourage the students to become interested in learning. And also, this will give a good quality in education particularly in these days.

This four months’ activity have all grade 10 Mathematics teachers as mentors, the top performing students in Grade 10 regular and STEM-Program students whom will serve as the peer tutors and utilizing the developed module as instructional materials. The proponents found out that there were 32 out of 545 grade 10 students have low scholastic performance in Mathematics.

Moreover, utilizing the module for the Alternative Reinforcement Course (Project ARC) is the main focus of the study to improve the performance of the students in Grade 10. This involves all students which visibly got lower grades in their first grading period.

III. Action Research Questions

This study aims to test the effectiveness of developed module on the Alternative Reinforcement Course (Project ARC) in Mathematics for Grade 10 struggling students. However, for its actualization, the following questions were sought to answer.

What is the level of performance of the students in selected topics in Mathematics 10 as revealed by the pre-test and post-test results with respect to;

Arithmetic Sequence;

Geometric Sequence;

Polynomial Equations;

Polynomial Functions;

Geometry;

Permutations and Combinations; and

Probability?

What is the level of effectiveness of the developed module in the Alternative Reinforcement Course (Project ARC) in selected topics in Mathematics 10 with respect to:

2.1. Language and Style;

2.2. Organization and Presentation; and

2.3. Usefulness?

Is there a significant difference on the level of performance of the respondents before and after the exposure of developed module in selected topics in mathematics 10 with respect to above mentioned topics?

IV. Action Research Methods

The present study is an attempt to study the effectiveness of module on the performance of the students in the Alternative Reinforcement Course, so the researchers selected the one-shot experimental method of research since a single group of test units is exposed to an experimental treatment and a single measurement is taken.

A. Participants and Sources of Data and Information

The subject of the study was the struggling grade 10 students and was chosen according to grades obtaining lower than 75%.

The researchers utilized the purposive sampling which obtained the 32 struggling students in Grade 10. The respondents of the study are the Grade 10 students in Pililla National High School, and picked from four sections namely Faith, Humility, Unity and Love was utilized in the conduct of the study with a total of thirty-two (32) students.

Table 1

List of Number of Students per Section

Section FAITH HUMILITY UNITY LOVE TOTAL

Number of Students 3 4 12 13 32

The following topics; Arithmetic Sequence, Geometric Sequence, Polynomial Equations, Polynomial Functions, Geometry, Permutations and Combinations, and Probability were considered to determine the respondents’ performance.

The effectiveness of module was determined according to pretest and posttest results of the student respondents in selected topics in Mathematics 10.

B. Data Gathering Methods

The researchers utilized the result of the first periodical exams and scholastic record of the grade 10 students and made use a pre-test exam to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the students. It made use of the objective type of test using multiple choices with four choices or options for every item. The students were asked to choose the best answer by writing the letter on the space provided for. A table of specification was developed which served as guide in the construction of the test items. There are four objectives that comprise the test items namely: knowledge, understanding, comprehension and problem solving. To get the index of difficulty and discrimination, the pre-test was subjected to item analysis using the U-L Index Method.

To determine the level of performance and significant difference of the students, post-test were administered and computed according to appropriate statistical tools.

Also the researcher will use an appropriate statistical treatment to determine the perception of the respondents on the developed module.

V. Discussion of Results and Reflections

To complete this study, it is necessary to analyse the data collected in order to answer the research questions. This part comprises the analysis, presentation, interpretation and reflections on the results of the study.

To determine the performance of the student-respondents in the Alternative Reinforcement Course (Project ARC) utilizing the developed module, the result of their post-test were evaluated. Based on the statistical tool sought, the researchers find out that:

Table 2

Computed Mean and Standard Deviation on the Performance of the

Student-Respondents in the Pre-test and Post-test

Topics Pre-test Post-test Mean

Mean VI SD Mean VI SD Difference

Arithmetic Sequence 10.06 Fair 2.33 30.78 Very Satisfactory 2.65 20.72

Geometric Sequence 8.53 Fair 2.61 28.09 Very Satisfactory 1.33 19.56

Polynomial Equation 7.03 Poor 1.69 27.81 Very Satisfactory 2.47 20.78

Polynomial Function 7.90 Poor 2.30 27.84 Very Satisfactory 1.39 19.94

Geometry 8.19 Fair 2.20 28.09 Very Satisfactory 2.24 19.91

Permutations and Combinations 7.38 Poor 1.75 27.59 Very Satisfactory 2.43 20.22

Probability 7.19 Poor 1.16 29.38 Very Satisfactory 2.87 22.19

It could be gleaned from the table above that the levels of performance on the different topics such as Polynomial Equation, Polynomial Function, Permutations and Combinations and Probability have improved verbal interpretation from “Poor” to “Very Satisfactory”. While the Arithmetic Sequence, Geometric Sequence and Geometry has verbal interpretation of “Fair” to “Very Satisfactory, all topics have big improvement as revealed by the computed mean.

On the other hand, mean difference, 20.72 for Arithmetic Sequence, 19.56 for Geometric Sequence, 20.78 for Polynomial Equation, 19.94 for Polynomial Function, 19.91 for Geometry, 20.22 for Permutations and Combinations and 22.19 for Probability, shows that this means that the topics obtained a big difference in the result of the pre-test and post-test.

Moreover, the significant level obtained 0.00 p-value between the performance of the students in the pre-test and post-test with respect to different topics.

The table shows that using the developed module for alternative reinforcement course developed the performance of the struggling grade 10 students and bridges the gap of the students learning.

This is in line with the research done by Devesh and Nesseri, through their research saying that many students are easier, more useful and more interesting learning math because they use modules and the use of mathematical modules is very effective in learning (Devesh & Nesseri 2014).

Table 3

Composite Table on the Average Weighted Mean on the Level of Effectiveness of the Developed Module with Respect to Language and Style, Organization and Presentation and Usefulness

Teachers Students

WxVI Rank WxVI Rank

1. Language and Style 4.77 VME 1 4.71 VME 2

2. Organization and Presentation 4.71 VME 2 4.70 VME 3

3. Usefulness 4.74 VME 3 4.78 VME 1

Overall 4.74 VME 4.73 VME As reflected in the composite table, teachers evaluated the level of effectiveness of the developed module as “Very Much Effective” with an overall weighted mean of 4.74 while students gained the overall mean of 4.73 interpreted as “Very Much Effective”. This explains that the developed module is very much effective.

This confirmed the findings of Lim (2016) that the use of modules in teaching mathematics specially word problem solving, is an effective teaching approach. Effective in a sense that it helped the subjects of the study learn concepts in mathematics without cramming in keeping with the pacing of the teacher.

This implies that both groups of respondents have common observation with regard to different aspects. The resemblances in the evaluation on the level of effectiveness only prove that the developed module concluded that the applicability and effectiveness of module could be used in teaching mathematics subjects.

Table 4

Computed t-value on the Level of Performance of the Respondents using the Developed Module in Selected Topics in Mathematics 10 as Revealed by

Pre-test and Post-test Result

Topics Pre-test Post-test MD tcttabHoVI

xSD xSD Arithmetic Sequence 10.06 2.33 30.78 2.65 20.72 46.79 1.696 R S

Geometric Sequence 8.53 2.61 28.09 1.33 19.56 43.15 1.696 R S

Polynomial Equations 7.03 1.69 27.81 2.47 20.78 47.80 1.696 R S

Polynomial Functions 7.91 2.30 27.84 1.39 19.94 57.26 1.696 R S

Geometry 8.19 2.20 28.09 2.24 19.91 75.67 1.696 R S

Permutations and Combinations 7.38 1.75 27.59 2.43 20.22 65.87 1.696 R S

Probability 7.19 1.16 29.38 2.87 22.19 43.10 1.696 R S

The overall findings reveal that there is a significant difference on the pre-test and post-test scores of the respondents with respect to the selected topics in Mathematics 10. The performance of the respondents on the selected topics in Mathematics 10 has increased as revealed by their pre-test and post-test scores.

The present results confirmed the conclusion of Igbo and Omeje (2014) shows that the use of teacher-made instructional materials was highly useful in enhancing the learning-disabled children’s performance in the classroom as perceived by the children in this study. There is the indication that there is no significant difference between male and female pupils taught using teacher-made instructional materials. Therefore, the place of teacher-made instructional materials in the process of teaching and learning cannot be over emphasized. They attract the attention of pupils and enable them to contribute to discussions on the topics being taught, using the materials to illustrate and in that process store the information acquired in their long-term memory for further application.

The findings revealed that the use of module in teaching Mathematics 10 is sufficient to enhance the performance of the students.

VI. Action Plan

Alternative Reinforcement Course in Mathematics 10 (Project ARC)

Theme: The product of innovative teaching and teachers with a big heart is an intelligent and competitive student.

Plan of Action to Innovate Teachers Teaching Strategies in Mathematics

Area Thrust Program / Activities Objectives Time Frame Manpower Budget Source

of Fund Success

Indicator

Faculty Development Seminar Workshop for Least Mastered Skills Enhance the Mastery Level August 2018 Teachers Administrators Php. 5, 000 School Fund 100% of teachers participated

Student Development Improvement of Student’s Performance Develop students’ performance towards

Mathematics subject School Year 2018-2019 Teachers

Students Php. 8, 000 MOOE Students’ performance raised by 20%

Curriculum Development Writeshop for the Development of Instructional Materials in Mathematics Develop Instructional Materials for Mathematics School Year 2018-2019 Teachers Php. 17, 000 MOOE 100% of the needed materials have been proposed

VII. List of References

Adedeji Tella Osun (2007). The Impact of Motivation on Student’s Academic Achievement and Learning Outcomes in Mathematics among Secondary School Students in Nigeria, State College of Education, Osun State, Nigeria

Alelaimat, Abeer Rashed, Ghoneem, Khowla Abd Al_Raheem (2012). The Effect of Educational Modules Strategy on the Direct and Postponed Study’s Achievement of Seventh Primary Grade Students in Science in Comparison with the Conventional Approach, retrieved from

http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/hes.v2n2p40Devesh, S. & Nesseri, D. AL. (2014). Effectiveness of Mathematics Module in Foundation Programme in Majan College. International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology. Vol. 3, Issue 1, 1-7.

Fuchs LS, Powell SR, Seethaler PM, Cirino PT, Fletcher JM, Fuchs D, et al. Remediating Number Combination and Word Problem Deficits among Students with Mathematics Difficulties: A Randomized Control Trial. Journal of Educational Psychology 2009; 101 (3):561-76. PUBMED: 19865600

Gross J, Hudson C, Price D. The Long Term Costs of Numeracy Difficulties: 2nd Edition. http://bit.ly/1lRGbcP (accessed 27 January 2016).

Lembke, E., Hampton, D., & Beyers, S. (2012). Response to intervention in mathematics: Critical elements. Psychology in the Schools, 49, 257-272. doi:10.1002/pits.21596

Lim, Edgar Julius A. (2016). Effectiveness of Modular Instruction in Word Problem Solving of BEED Students IOSR Journal of Mathematics, Eastern Samar State University, Philippines, (IOSR-JM) e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 12, Issue 5 Ver. VII (Sep. – Oct. 2016), PP 59-65 retrieved from www.iosrjournals.orgIgbo, Janet N., Omeje, Joachim C. (2014). Perceived Efficacy of Teacher-Made Instructional Materials in Promoting Learning among Mathematics-Disabled Children (First Published) Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014538431XI. Financial Report

ACTIVITIES

add rows if necessary Eligible Expenditures Quantity Cost

1. Certificates of Recognition (special paper and printing) Php. 52.00 2 Php. 104.00

2. Printing of Instructional Materials and Activities Php. 25.00 7 (32) Php. 5, 600.00

3. Certificates of Participation and Completion Php. 10.00 32 Php. 320.00

4. Miscellaneous Php. 1, 500.00 1 Php. 1, 500.00

TOTAL Php. 7, 524.00

SUBMITTED BY:

(Signature over printed name) AILYN TIBAY MASINSIN

MC CARLO VIDANES TRINIDAD

EDITH SA. DELOS SANTOS