Lu?n v?n Th?c s? v?i ?? tài:
STUDENTS’ AND TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION OF FACTORS CAUSING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ANXIETY
do h?c viên ?ào Nguy?n Anh ?ào th?c hi?n và báo cáo ?ã ???c H?i ??ng Ch?m Lu?n v?n thông qua.
Th? ký?y viên
(Ký tên) (Ký tên)
Ph?n bi?n 1Ph?n bi?n 2
(Ký tên) (Ký tên)
C?n Th?, ngày ………. tháng ………. n?m 2018
Ch? t?ch h?i ??ng
DECLARATIONThe thesis entitled “Teachers’ and students’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety” is my own work and effort conducted under the supervision of PhD. Tran Quang Ng?c Thuy, A Lecturer of School of Foreign Languages, Hue University.
I hereby declare that the information reported in this study is the result of my own research, except where due reference is made. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not previously submitted to any candidature for any other degree or diploma.
Author: Dao Nguyen Anh DaoGender: Female
Date of birth: June 22nd, 1992Place of birth: Can Tho
Duty and place of work: English language teacher at a language center
Address: Cai Rang Distrist, Can Tho City
Email: [email protected]
Can Tho, September, 2018
PhD. TRAN QUANG NGO THUY DAO NGUYEN ANH DAO
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTo carry out my thesis, I am very grateful to many individuals whose contributions, critiques, and assistance have supported me for this publication. I do express my sincere gratitude to those who have contributed to the completion of this thesis in various ways.
First and foremost, I would like to express my deep gratitude to PhD. Tran Quang Ngoc Thuy, my supervisor, for accepting me as her advisee and for her supervision throughout this thesis. She offered me clear instructions, useful advice, and constructive feedback during the research and on the thesis. This thesis would not have been completed without her valuable guidance, support, and enthusiasm. Her encouragement and dedicated work were the most vital factors to the publication of this thesis.
In addition, I am greatly thankful to all lecturers who gave instructions on subjects of the Course- 23 M.A’s program at Can Tho University for their knowledge and indirect assistance. Thanks to their teaching during this program, I have achieved insights into conducting a research and great progress which is helpful for my teaching in the prospect.
I also wish to send my special thanks to teachers and students for their enthusiastic assistance in collecting data. Without their willingness to complete the questionnaires and participate in the interviews, this study could not have been conducted.
Moreover, I would like to send my appreciation to my kind classmates and Ms. Truong Kim Ngan who cheer me up and support me during the course.
Besides, I would like to express my special thanks to my beloved family and my close friends for their love and understanding. Their whole-hearted encouragement assisted me overcome every hardship during the journey to the accomplishment of this M.A thesis.
Finally, many thanks many thanks go to myself for being able accomplish this thesis.
TÓM L??CLo l?ng là m?t c?m giác ph? bi?n mà ???c tr?i nghi?m c?a nh?ng ng??i h?c ngo?i ng?, ??c bi?t là trong vi?c h?c nói m?t ngôn ng? n??c ngoài. Nghiên c?u này ???c th?c hi?n v?i m?c tiêu và xác ??nh nh?n th?c c?a giáo viên và h?c sinh v? các y?u t? y?u t? d?n ??n lo l?ng v? vi?c nói ti?ng Anh c?a h?c sinh trung h?c ph? thông. Nghiên c?u bao g?m 90 ng??i tham gia, 60 h?c sinh trung h?c và 30 giáo viên ?ã tr? l?i cho m?t b?ng câu h?i ???c xây d?ng có m?c ?ích rõ ràng. Các phát hi?n cho th?y r?ng s? lo l?ng v? s? t?n t?i trong s? các sinh viên ???c kh?o sát. Bên c?nh ?ó, nó ?ã ???c ti?t l? r?ng các y?u t? liên quan ??n ni?m tin c?a giáo viên và t??ng tác gi?a giáo viên và h?c sinh d??ng nh? không ph?i là lý do chính ?nh h??ng ??n s? lo l?ng khi h?c nói ngo?i ng? c?a ph?n ?ông h?c sinh. M?t khác, s? lo l?ng v? giao ti?p c?a sinh viên, s? lo l?ng, s? hãi v? ?ánh giá tiêu c?c, và nh?n th?c tiêu c?c v? kh? n?ng ti?ng Anh ???c th? hi?n là nh?ng y?u t? kích thích lo âu cho h?c sinh trung h?c khi h?c nói. Bên c?nh ?ó, nó so sánh quan ?i?m c?a h?c sinh và giáo viên v? nh?ng lý do này và báo cáo nh?ng khác bi?t ?áng k? xu?t hi?n. Nó ti?p t?c l?p lu?n r?ng s? hi?u bi?t lý do là m?t b??c quan tr?ng trong vi?c gi?m lo l?ng khi nói ti?ng Anh và nâng cao hi?u qu? h?c t?p.
ABSTRACTAnxiety is a common feeling experienced by foreign language learners, especially in learning to speak a foreign language. This study was conducted with the aim to and determine the teachers’ and students’ perceptions of the factors leading high school students’ speaking anxiety. The study involved 90 participants, 60 high school students and 30 teachers responding to a purposely constructed questionnaire. The findings showed that speaking anxiety existed among the surveyed students. Besides, it was revealed that the factors related to teachers’ beliefs and teacher-student interactions appeared not to be major reasons for speaking anxiety among the majority of the students. On the other hand, the students ‘communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and negative self-perception of English ability were shown as highly anxiety-provoking factors for the high school students in speaking. Besides, it compared students’ and teachers’ views about these reasons and reported the significant differences emerged. It further argued that understanding the reasons is an important step in reducing FLSA and hence enhancing learning effectiveness
TABLE OF CONTENT TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc526152724 h iiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS PAGEREF _Toc526152725 h iiiTÓM L??C PAGEREF _Toc526152726 h ivABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc526152727 h vTABLE OF CONTENT PAGEREF _Toc526152728 h viLISTS OF TABLES AND FINGUES PAGEREF _Toc526152729 h ixLIST OF ABBRIVIATION PAGEREF _Toc526152730 h xCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc526152731 h 11.1. RATIONALE PAGEREF _Toc526152733 h 11.2. AIMS OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc526152735 h 21.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS PAGEREF _Toc526152736 h 21.4. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES PAGEREF _Toc526152737 h 31.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc526152738 h 31.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc526152739 h 31.5. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc526152740 h 4CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc526152741 h 62.1 DEFINITION OF PERCEPTIONS PAGEREF _Toc526152743 h 62.2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF SPEAKING PAGEREF _Toc526152744 h 72.2.1. Definition of speaking PAGEREF _Toc526152745 h 72.2.2. The importance of speaking skill PAGEREF _Toc526152746 h 72.2.3. Nature of speaking PAGEREF _Toc526152747 h 82.2.4. Characteristics of a Successful Speaking Activity PAGEREF _Toc526152748 h 92.3 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF ANXIETY PAGEREF _Toc526152749 h 92.3.1. Definitions of anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152750 h 92.3.2 Types of anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152751 h 102.3.3 Foreign language anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152752 h 112.3.4 Genders in foreign language anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152753 h 122.3.5 Effects of anxiety on learning PAGEREF _Toc526152754 h 220.127.116.11 Foreign language anxiety and its associations with three stages of language learning PAGEREF _Toc526152755 h 13Debilitating anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152757 h 15Facilitating anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152758 h 162.3.6 Manifestations of foreign language learning anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152759 h 172.3.7 Sources of foreign language anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152760 h 18.104.22.168 Communication apprehension (CA) PAGEREF _Toc526152761 h 22.214.171.124 Test anxiety PAGEREF _Toc526152762 h 126.96.36.199 Fear of negative evaluation PAGEREF _Toc526152763 h 188.8.131.52 Learner’s negative self-perception of English ability PAGEREF _Toc526152764 h 184.108.40.206 Teacher beliefs PAGEREF _Toc526152765 h 220.127.116.11 Teacher-student interactions PAGEREF _Toc526152766 h 222.4 A REVIEW OF PREVIOUS STUDIES RELEVANT TO SPEAKING ANXIETY PAGEREF _Toc526152767 h 23CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc526152768 h 273.1 RESEARCH DESIGN PAGEREF _Toc526152770 h 273.2. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS PAGEREF _Toc526152771 h 283.3 PARTICIPANTS PAGEREF _Toc526152773 h 293.4. RESEARCH PROCEDURE PAGEREF _Toc526152776 h 303.4.1. Planning PAGEREF _Toc526152777 h 303.4.2. Piloting the questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc526152778 h 303.4.3. Administering the questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc526152779 h 303.5. DATA ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc526152780 h 31 HYPERLINK l “_Toc526152781” CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc526152782 h 324.3 TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF FACTORS CAUSING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ANXIETY PAGEREF _Toc526152939 h 364.4 TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF FACTORS CAUSING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ANXIETY PAGEREF _Toc526152952 h 40CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PAGEREF _Toc526152954 h 445.1. SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS PAGEREF _Toc526152956 h 445.2. CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc526152959 h 455.3. PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS PAGEREF _Toc526152960 h 465.3.1. Implications for the teachers PAGEREF _Toc526152961 h 465.3.2. Recommendations for students PAGEREF _Toc526152968 h 485.4. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY PAGEREF _Toc526152974 h 495.5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY PAGEREF _Toc526152975 h 50REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc526152976 h 51APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc526152977 h 54APPENDIX 1 PAGEREF _Toc526152978 h 54APPENDIX 2 PAGEREF _Toc526152979 h 56APPENDIX 4 PAGEREF _Toc526152980 h 62APPENDIX 5 PAGEREF _Toc526152981 h 65APENDIX 6 PAGEREF _Toc526152982 h 68APPENDIX 7 PAGEREF _Toc526152983 h 69
LISTS OF TABLES AND FINGUESList of Tables
Table 3.1 Research questions and corresponding methods27
Table 4.1 The reliability of the pilot and the post questionnaires32
Table 4.2 Students’ response frequencies and means of the items causing speaking anxiety items (N = 60)33
Table 4.3Students’ response means of the factors causing speaking anxiety35
Table 4.4 Teachers’ response frequencies and means of the items causing speaking anxiety items 37
Table 4.5 Teachers’ response means of the factors causing speaking anxiety39
Table 4.6 Means and difference of item scores on which students and teachers showed signi?cant differences.41
List of figure
Figure 4.1: The mean between students’ and teachers’ perceptions of items41
LIST OF ABBRIVIATIONCA: Communication Apprehension
FLA: Foreign Language Anxiety
FLCAS: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale
EFL: English as a Foreign Language
SA: Strongly agree
PL: Partly Agree
SD: Strongly disagree
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTIONThe rationale undergoing the current study is presented in this chapter. Accordingly, research aims, significance of the study, and scope of the study will be pointed out. The chapter ends with the description of the general organization of the research.1.1. RATIONALESince the open policy was carried out in Vietnam, the requirements for English language ability in Vietnam have significantly changed with the rapidly increasing demands of globalization in many fields, such as economy, environment, and culture. Learning English has become the dire need of Vietnamese people. Especially, learning speaking plays an important role as the need of communication is paid much more attention.
Speaking is one of the four required skills in learning English, however a lot of students are not able to speak English, even though many of them have learned English for seven years. It is believed that there are affective or emotional factors influencing the foreign language learning process. Among various affective variables, such as attitude, anxiety, interest, motivation, inhibition, and self-esteem, “anxiety is quite possibly the affective factor that most pervasively obstructs the learning process” (Arnold ; Brown, 1999, cited in Dornyei, 2005, p. 198). Anxiety is defined as a feeling of uneasy suspense (Krashen, 1985). As a teacher of English, from my own observations and experiences, I have noticed that the feeling of anxiety, apprehension and nervousness are common phenomena expressed by students in speaking classes. Actually, many students keep silence in speaking classes and they are usually reluctant to take part in class activities. Some students may be very good at writing or reading English but they fail to speak English fluently and naturally. Some students state that they forget words when speaking in front of the class, and some claim that they do not often speak in class as they are afraid of being evaluated by the teachers and their friends. Some frankly admit that they feel stressful and anxious when speaking English. These negative emotional factors seem to be a barrier that prevents students from actively participating in speaking activities and accordingly, make the outcome of oral English speaking unsatisfactory.
Anxiety has been a focus in research in foreign language learning since early1970s with the ground-breaking research by the Canadian psychologists Gardner and Lambert. Since then, many researchers (Bailey, 1983; Horwitz, Horwitz ; Cope, 1986; Krashen, 1985; Crookall and Oxford, 1991; Aida, 1994; MacIntyre, 1995; MacIntyre ; Gardener, 1989, 1991, 1994, etc) have consistently claimed that anxiety can impede foreign language production and achievement.
Although a number of studies have been conducted to seek out the nature of foreign language anxiety, few have been done on perceptions between students and teachers of factors causing anxiety in their English learning process, especially in speaking skill. Such situation has aroused my interest and inspired me to carry out a research on the topic: “Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety”.1.2. AIMS OF THE STUDYThe study attempts to determine the perceptions of the students and the perceptions of teachers of factors causing speaking anxiety in the EFL classes. The key aims of this research are to find out the differences between the students’ and teachers’ perceptions of the factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONSTo achieve the aims of the research, namely determining the perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety finding out the mismatch between students’ and teachers’ perceptions,, the researcher attempts to find out the answers to the following research questions:
What is the students’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety?
What is the teachers’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety?
Is there any mismatch between students’ and teachers’ perceptions?
1.4. RESEARCH HYPOTHESESFrom a critical review of relevant literature of the research issue, as well as in light of the findings from previous studies, it is hypothesized that both high school students and teachers perceive factors causing speaking anxiety in English. In addition, it is expected that students and teachers have different perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety.
1.5. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYWith the findings of perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety, the research will build the first step to raise the both sand teachers’ awareness about the effect of factors causing their students’ speaking anxiety and thereby increase students’ oral performance. What’s more, the research assists both high school students and teachers to well- prepare for the language speaking class as well as create the confidence in practical communication later.
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDYFLA exits in the process of learning all four skills: Listening, speaking, reading and writing (Horwitz, Horwitz ; Cope, 1986; Young, 1986; Aida, 1994; Cheng, Horwitz ; Schallert, 1999; Cheng, 2002). However, the topic of the study is ” factors causing foreign language speaking anxiety”. According to various studies on speaking anxiety, factors can be divided into some groups such as to communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, learner’s negative self-perception of English ability, teacher beliefs, and teacher-student interactions. However, within the framework of this study, the focus is put on determining students’ and teachers’ perceptions of factor causing high school students’ speaking anxiety. Besides, due to the time constraints, this study only involves both 60 high school students and 30 teachers.
1.5. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The report of the present study is presented in five chapters: 1) Introduction, 2) Literature review, 3) Research methodology, 4) Results and Discussion, 5) Conclusion and Implications.
Chapter 1 introduces the rationale underlying this present study. Research aims, significance of the study, scope of the study, and organization of the report are then presented.
Chapter 2 reviews the literature on speaking as well as challenges in writing in English. This chapter puts an emphasis on (1) definition of perceptions, (2) theoretical background of speaking, (3) theoretical background of anxiety, and (4) a summary of relevant studies relevant to speaking anxiety.
Chapter 3 outlines the methods used to conduct the current study. The first section presents the research questions. Research hypothesis, research design, research instruments, participants and procedures to data collection are then described. The chapter finishes with the description of methods of data analysis.
Chapter 4 presents the results of the study and the discussions of the findings. The chapter first starts with findings on students ‘perceptions of factors causing speaking anxiety. Then, the chapter ends with the mismatch between students’ and teachers’ perceptions of factors causing speaking anxiety.
Chapter 5 concludes the report of the study. A summary of key research findings will be first presented. Next, the conclusion of the study will be drawn out, and pedagogical implications will be stated. Based on the conclusion drawn from the study, this chapter ends with limitations of the study and recommendations for further research. Following these chapters are the List of References and Appendices
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEWThe current chapter reviews the literature on perceptions, speaking, anxiety in general, and foreign language anxiety as well as anxiety in foreign language speaking in particular. This chapter puts an emphasis on (1) definition of perceptions, (2) theoretical background of speaking, (3) theoretical background of anxiety, and (4) a summary of relevant studies relevant to speaking anxiety.
2.1 DEFINITION OF PERCEPTIONSBased on the definition from the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, perception is an uncountable noun defined as the way you notice things, especially with the senses; the ability to understand the true nature of something; or an idea, a belief or an image you have as a result of how you see or understand something. In reality, it is the way you think or understand someone or something from your sense.
Wikipedia defines “perception is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment”. In regarding with definition, Cambridge Dictionary realizes that perception is a belief or opinion, often held by many people and based on how things seem; the quality of being aware of things through the physical senses, especially sight or someone’s ability to notice an understand things that are not obvious to other people.
In the current study, the working definition of perception is learners’ belief about something, more specifically, their belief about the importance of using authentic materials in learning medical English terms.
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF SPEAKING2.2.1. Definition of speaking
Speaking is a skill which language teachers, quite rightly, believe is particularly important. By speaking, individuals can express needs, opinions and feelings, understand and ask questions. According to Donough and Shaw (1993), speaking is a skill which enables people to produce utterances when communicating to achieve a particular end. This may involve expressing ideas, wishes or opinions, negotiating or solving problems, or establishing or maintaining social relationships. Speaking is “the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non – verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts” (Chaney, 1998:13). Thus, speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving, and processing information. Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment and the purpose of speaking. Speaking requires that learners not only know how to produce specific points of language such as grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary (“linguistic competence”), but also that they understand when, why, and in what ways to produce language (“sociolinguistic competence”). A good speaker synthesizes these skills and knowledge to succeed in a given speech act.
2.2.2. The importance of speaking skill It is difficult to say which skill is the most important among four language skills. However, speaking seems the most important and the closest to the goal of language teaching: communicative competence. Pattison (1992) confirms that when people know or learn a language, they mean being able to speak the language. Besides that, Ur (1996:120) states, “of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important.”
2.2.3. Nature of speaking Speaking is one of the features that distinguish us from the animals because it is the common way to convey information from this person to another through using language. Language is a complicated phenomenon and language learning is a complicated process, so speaking a foreign language is a complex skill. The nature of speaking has been discussed by many researchers. Byrne (1976:8) clarifies, “speaking is a two-way process between speakers and listeners involving the productive skills of understanding”. Byrne (1995: 10) gives a diagram to show what happens in a speech situation and incidentally, therefore, what is involved in oral activity.
Another author- Bygate (1987) shows that in order to be able to speak a foreignlanguage, learners not only need to understand some grammar, vocabulary but also know how to use knowledge as well as language on deciding what to say and how to say. One more thing concerning the ability to speak is that of fluency and accuracy. Accuracy involves the correct use of vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation, fluency can be thought as the ability to keep going when speaking spontaneously (Roger Gower, 1995:99). Furthermore, Nunan (2003:55) wrote, “accuracy is the extent to which students? speech matches what people actually say when they use the target language, fluency is the extent to which speakers use the language quickly and confidently”.
2.2.4. Characteristics of a Successful Speaking ActivityClassroom activities would be an important component of a language course. Successful speaking activities in class can result in great improvement of students? speaking skills. According to Ur (1996: 120), there are four characteristics for a successful speaking activity. First, students talk a lot. It means that learners always have to be the center of all speaking activities and teachers only play the role as guides. Secondly, participation is even. Classroom discussion is not dominated by a minority of talkative participants; all learners get a chance to speak and contributions are fairly evenly distributed. Thirdly, motivation is high. Interesting topics and new things will attract learners to take part in speaking activities. They are eager or excited to speak and really want to express their feelings as well as opinions in order to contribute to achieving a task objective. Finally, language is of an acceptable level. Students express themselves in utterances that are relevant, easily comprehensible to each other, and an acceptable level of language accuracy. In short, if we want to have a successful speaking activity or if we want to get students talking, we need to meet all the above criteria.
2.3 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF ANXIETY2.3.1. Definitions of anxietyThere has been a variety of studies carried out on anxiety. Simply speaking, anxiety is a kind of troubled feeling in the mind. It is “a subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the automatic nervous system” (Horwitz, 1986) or “the worry and negative emotional reaction aroused when learning a second language” (MacIntyre, 1999). Second language anxiety is defined here as distinct complexity of self- perception, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related to using a foreign/ second language for communication beyond class language. Hansen (1977) called anxiety as “an experience of general uneasiness, a sense of foreboding, a feeling of tension” (p.91). Anxiety might exert a deleterious influence on language achievement, and equally intuitively, that poor language achievement might arouse even more anxiety. According to Hilgard, “anxiety is a psychological construct, commonly described by psychologists as a state of apprehension, a vague fear that is only indirectly associated with an object” (Hilgard, Atkinson, ; Atkinson, 1971). In short, anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the situation of learning a foreign language. In general, it can have physical, emotional, and behavioral manifestations and these manifestations can differ with each individual.
2.3.2 Types of anxiety According to MacIntyre and Gadner (1991b), anxiety in general can be experienced at three perspectives: trait anxiety, state anxiety, and situation specific anxiety.
The first perspective – trait anxiety, according to Spielberger (1966, p. 16), is relatively permanent and steady personality feature, referring to a motive or acquired behavioral disposition that predisposes an individual to perceive a wide range of objectively non-dangerous circumstances as threatening, and to respond to these circumstances with anxiety state reactions disproportionate in intensity to the magnitude of the objective danger. MacIntyre and Gadner (1991b) consider trait anxiety as “a constant condition without a time limitation”. Based on Ying?s point of view (2008, p.2), trait anxiety is related to a generally stable predisposition to be nervous in a wide range of situations.
The second perspective – state anxiety, on the other hand, is fleeting and not an enduring characteristic of an individual’s personality (Speilberger, 1966, p.12). It is apprehension experienced at particular moment in time. This anxiety can be provoked in the confrontation of the perceived threat, yet it is temporary and altered in time (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991b).
The third perspective, situation-specific anxiety, is adopted to the study of anxiety in order to attribute the experience to a particular source. It is defined as the specific forms of anxiety that occur consistently over time within a given situation, such as during tests, or when speaking a second language (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994, p.2). Also, it can be considered to be the probability of becoming anxious in a particular type of situation (Ying, 2008, p.2).
2.3.3 Foreign language anxietyWhen anxiety is related to second or foreign language, it is termed as “second or foreign language anxiety”. Young 1991 (cited in Onwuegbuzie et al., 1999, p217) considers it as a complex and multidimensional phenomenon.
According to Horwitz et al. (1986), foreign language anxiety is a form of situation-specific anxiety: it is stable over time but limited to the particular situations of language learning. Horwitz et al. (1986) also state that the anxieties associated with specific language skills, such as writing, reading, listening and speaking are all situation-specific anxieties, which refer to the apprehension experienced when a situation requires the use of a foreign language. Anxiety has also been recognized as one of the most important predictors of foreign language performance. Gardner & MacIntyre (1993, cited in Arnold 1999, p.59) refer to language anxiety as “fear or apprehension occurring when a learner is expected to perform in the second or foreign language.” Similarly, Horwitz et al. (1986, p.129) used the words “tenseness, trembling, perspiring, palpitations, and sleep disturbances” when describing the physiological and psychological symptoms of foreign language classroom anxiety at the Learning Skills Center at the University of Texas. “Freezing” in class, “going blank” before exams, and feeling reticence about entering the classroom were also observed in their language learners. The researchers discovered that these learners “experience apprehension, worry, even dread. They have difficulty concentrating, become forgetful, sweat, and have palpitations. They exhibit avoidance behavior such as missing class and postponing homework” (p.126). From their observations and discussions, the authors give a definition of foreign language classroom anxiety as “a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors related to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process” (p.128).
2.3.4 Genders in foreign language anxietyIn general, females are thought to be more adept in language learning than males. Female students usually score higher than male students in English exams. Therefore, it is not hard to imagine that females are more confident in their abilities to learn a new language well. Once they gain faith in their capabilities, they will be more ready to “approach threatening situations” (Dörnyei, 2001) in English classes. On the contrary, males, who have higher frequency of language learning failure, are inclined to attribute their bad performance in English classes to their low ability. Consequently, they are more anxious in English classes.
However, possible differences between female and male participants as regards anxiety levels and in achievement have been examined in some language anxiety studies. Some researches (Chang, 1997; Daly, Kreser, & Rogharr, 1994) have suggested that female students often have higher levels of anxiety than males in academic settings. In the field of language learning, Padilla, Cervantes, Maldonado, and Garcia (1988) reported that female students were more likely to be more apprehensive than male learners. Cheng (2002), who investigated English writing anxiety in Taiwanese learners, discovered that females were significantly more anxious than males.
Elkhafaifi (2005) found that females and males exhibited different levels of anxiety depending on the kind of anxiety experienced: female students presented significantly higher levels of general Arabic language anxiety levels than males, but no statistically significant differences were seen between sexes in Arabic listening anxiety.
According to Pappamihiel (2001), English language anxiety experienced by females in the mainstream classroom was related to “social performance” (p.34), and was “a type of performance anxiety more related to interactions with peers” (p.33), whereas in the ESL classroom it was “more related to academic anxiety and worries about achievement” (p.33). As regards language achievement, Aida (1994) reported that females received significantly higher grades than males in Japanese in the final exam, females scoring an average of 89.7%, as against an average mark of 86.1% for males. Similarly, in Kitano’s study (2001) of Japanese college students, male students have been found to feel more anxiety when they perceived their spoken Japanese less competent than that of others; however, such a relationship was not observed among female students.
2.3.5 Effects of anxiety on learning18.104.22.168 Foreign language anxiety and its associations with three stages of language learningLanguage learning includes three stages: input, processing and output and language anxiety has been theorized to occur at all these three stages. This description will point out why second language learners make mistakes and the reasons of linguistic difficulties second language learners face in learning and using the target language. This can offer an insight to help understand anxiety experienced while communicating in the target language.
Input is the first stage of language learning and anxiety at input stage (input anxiety) refers to the anxiety experienced by the learners when they encounter a new word or phrase in the target language. Input anxiety is receiver’s apprehension when receiving information from auditory and visual clues. According to Krashen (1985, p.3), what causes incomprehensibility is learners’ affective filter which needs to be lower for successful language acquisition, otherwise input may be filtered out by nervous or bored learner that makes it unavailable for acquisition. „Affective filter? at the input stage may reduce the effectiveness of input by restricting the anxious students? ability to pay full attention to what their instructors say and reduce their ability to represent input internally (Tobias, 1977, cited in Onwuegbuzie et al., (2000, p.475)). Learners with high level of input anxiety request their instructors to repeat sentences quite frequently compared to their low- anxious counterparts (MacIntyre ; Gardner, 1994b, p.475). Input anxiety is more likely to cause miscomprehension of the message sent by the interlocutors, which may lead to the loss of successful communication and an increased level of anxiety.
Meanwhile, Onwuegbuzie et al. stated that anxiety at the processing stage, called processing anxiety, refers to the “apprehension students experience when performing cognitive operations on new information” (2000, p.476). Psychologists believe that learners have to process information and to pay attention to produce any linguistic aspect by using cognitive sources, however, the amount of information or focused mental activity a learner can engage in at one time is limited. Where limited processing mental capacity may cause anxiety, conversely, anxiety may restrict this operational capacity of the mind, and both together may cause impaired performance or altered behavior. Researchers have found a recursive or cyclical relationship among anxiety, cognition and behavior, Leary (1990); Levitt (1980) cited in MacIntyre (1995, p.92).
Anxiety while communicating in the target language is more likely to appear at the output stage, which entirely depends upon the successful completion of the previous stages: input and processing. Anxiety at this stage refers to learners’ nervousness or fear experienced when required to demonstrate their ability to use previously learned material, Onwuegbuzie et al. (2000, p.475). According to Tobias (1977) output anxiety involves interference, which is manifested after the completion of the processing stage but before its effective reproduction as output. ManIntyre and Gardner asserted, “High level of anxiety at this stage might hinder students? ability to speak… in the target language” (1994b cited in 2000, p.475).
To sum up, all the three stages of language learning have been found to be somewhat interdependent, each stage depends on the successful completion of the previous one.22.214.171.124 Foreign language learning anxiety and its associations with language achievement
Debilitating anxietyMost research on foreign language anxiety has focused on investigating the relationship between anxiety and language achievement. Empirical research has established that language anxiety is associated with “deficits in listening comprehension, reduced word production, impaired vocabulary learning, lower grades in language courses, and lower scores on standardized tests” (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994, pp.2-3). Numerous studies have found that anxiety has a moderate negative correlation with language performance with some researchers claiming it is one of the strongest predictors of success in foreign language learning (MacIntyre, 1999, cited in Woodwo, 2006, p.312). According to Wilson (2006, p. 93), various writings about language anxiety indicated that it is difficult to determine whether anxiety is a cause or an effect of poor language learning and achievement. It would seem logical that poor language ability might be a source of anxiety. As Horwitz (2001, cited in Wilson, 2006, p.85) pointed out “it is easy to conceptualize foreign language anxiety as a result of poor language learning ability. A student does poorly in language learning and consequently feels anxious about his or her language class”. However, it is possible that anxiety is not simply a result of poor language capacity and achievement, but that anxiety itself may interfere with an individual’s existing language ability and become a cause of poor language learning and performance. Wilson (2006, p.95-96) cited several studies by Saito and Samimy (1996), MacInttyre et al. (1997), Onwuegbuzie et al. (1999), and Cheng et al. (1999) to demonstrate that there might be a recursive effect between anxiety and language achievement.
Facilitating anxietyIt might appear that anxiety is mostly debilitating to foreign language learning or performance. Nonetheless, several studies (Alpert ; Haber, 1960; Mills, Pajares ; Herron, 2006; cited in Kao ; Craigie, 2010, p.61) showed positive correlation between anxiety and language performance, demonstrating that facilitative anxiety could serve as alertness to promote foreign language learning. Therefore, the teacher’s job is to help students keep their anxiety adequate as a proper level of anxiety plays a positive role and motivates students to maintain their efforts in learning (Na, 2007, pp.30-31).
Most language researchers have focused on exploring the relationship between anxiety and language learning. Although the results are inconsistent, language anxiety presents the negative effects in most cases (Chan and Wu, 2004, p. 291). Anxiety, in a variety of studies, has been found to negatively correlate with grades in language courses, self- confidence in language learning, performance and participation in learning activities (Krashen, 1985; Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986; Aida, 1994; Liao, 1999; Oxford, 1999; MacIntyre and Gardener, 1991b; Oda, 2011). Andrade & Williams (2009) claim that “foreign language learning anxiety has been associated with a large number of negative outcomes” and point out some physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, muscle tension, dry mouth, and excessive perspiration, as well as some psychological symptoms like embarrassment, feelings of helplessness, fear, going blank, and poor memory recall and retention among others. The researchers also report “negative social behaviors may be manifested in such ways as inappropriate silence, unwillingness to participate, absenteeism, and withdrawal from the course. These effects can lead to poor performance and low achievement” (Andrade & Williams, 2009). According to Ying (2008), learners with higher language anxiety have the tendency to avoid interpersonal communication more often than less anxious ones, and anxiety can influence both speed and accuracy of learning. Similarly, Oda (2011) emphasizes that language anxiety is consistently related to problems in language learning such as reduced word production, impaired vocabulary learning, lower grades in language courses, and lower scores on standardized tests.
However, some researchers have claimed that there are positive correlations between foreign language anxiety and language achievement. According to Scovel (1991, cited in Tanveer, 2007, p. 11), anxiety “motivates the learner to fight the new learning task; it gears the learner emotionally for approach behavior” (or it could serve as alertness to promote foreign language learning (Alpert & Haber, 1960; Kleinman, 1977)). Also, in Bailey’s research (1983), anxiety is found one of the keys to success, and closely related to competitiveness.
On the whole, the relationship between anxiety and language learning is probably not a simple linear one. Thus, it is necessary for the foreign language researchers and teachers to have a good grasp of the nature of foreign language anxiety in order to find out effective teaching methods minimizing the detrimental effects of anxiety.
2.3.6 Manifestations of foreign language learning anxietyAnxiety, in general, can have physical/psychological, emotional, and behavioral manifestation and these manifestations can differ with each individual. According to Oxford (1999, cited in Williams ; Andrade, 2009, p. 4, and cited in Yanling ; Guizheng, 2006, p. 98):
– Physical symptoms can include rapid heartbeat, muscle tension, dry mouth, and excessive perspiration.
– Psychological symptoms can include embarrassment, feelings of helplessness, fear, going blank, inability to concentrate, as well as poor memory recall and retention.
– Behavioral symptoms can include physical actions such as squirming, fidgeting, playing with hair or clothing, nervously touching objects, stuttering or stammering, displaying jittery behavior, being unable to reproduce the sounds or intonation of the target language even after repeated practice. More importantly, behavioral symptoms of anxiety can be manifested in negative avoidance behaviors like inappropriate silence, monosyllabic or non-committal responses, lack of eye contact, unwillingness to participate, coming late, arriving unprepared, showing indifference, cutting class, and withdrawal from the course.
2.3.7 Sources of foreign language anxietyResearchers have indicated that there are a number of factors causing anxiety for language learners. Bailey (1983) claims that students were anxious in ESL/ EFL classrooms due to competitiveness, tests and learners? perceived relationship with their teachers. Horwitz et al. (1986) claim that communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation are possible reasons for students’ anxiety. On the other hand, Price (1991) suggests that language anxiety comes from four aspects: difficulty level of foreign language classes, personal perception of language aptitude, certain personality variables and stressful classroom experiences. Through a review of the literature on language anxiety, Young (1991) also offers an extensive list of six potential sources of language anxiety: personal and interpersonal anxiety (including communication apprehension, fear of negative evaluation, negative self-perception of English ability, etc.), learner beliefs about language learning, teacher beliefs about language teaching, teacher-learner interactions, classroom procedures, and language testing. Young (1991) and Horwitz et al. (1986) share some similar suggestions about the common anxiety-provoking factors that students often cope with: communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, learner’s negative self-perception of English ability, teacher beliefs, and teacher-student interactions. These factors will also the focus of discussion and the base of research framework for this study.
126.96.36.199 Communication apprehension (CA)Horwitz et al. (1986, p.128) define CA as “a type of shyness characterized by fear or anxiety about communicating with people”. Similarly, McCroskey (1997) refers CA to “an individual’s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons”. There are a number of factors associated with such feelings of apprehension that second language communicative contexts induce. Buss (1984) points out novelty, formality, subordinate status, unfamiliarity, dissimilarity and degree of attention as the major sources of CA. According to Horwitz Et al. (1986), CA is closely related to learners’ personality traits such as shyness, quietness and reticent, the embarrassment about their language imperfections in front of others, and the fear of negative evaluation from the others.
CA obviously plays an important part in second/ foreign language anxiety. Learners who are apprehensive speaking in group or in front of the public are likely to be more anxious when expressing ideas in second/ foreign language class, where “in addition to feeling less in control of the communicative situation, they may also feel that their attempts at oral work are being constantly monitored” (Horwitz, et al., 1986, p.127). This apprehension is explained in relation to the learners? negative self- perceptions caused by the inability to understand the others and to make himself understood (MacIntyre and Gardner, 1989, cited in Ohata, 2005, p.137). McCroskey (1997) asserts that individuals who are greeted with negative reactions from others in response to their attempt to communicate develop a sense that staying quiet is more highly rewarded than talking. Such psychological dilemmas of second/foreign language learners between willingness to speak up in the classroom and the fear of losing face in front of the others, thus, seems to be quite common phenomenon in second language classroom settings ( Bailey, 1983; Cohen & Norst, 1989).
188.8.131.52 Test anxietyTest anxiety, which “refers to a type of performance anxiety stemming from a fear of failure” (Horwitz et al, 1986), can be another source causing foreign language anxiety. Many learners feel more pressure when asked to perform in second language classroom because of the continual evaluation from the language teachers. Accordingly, they may put down the wrong answers or simple “freeze up” due to nervousness, even if they know the correct answer (Price, 1991; McIntyre & Gardner, 1994). Test anxiety is a quite pervasive phenomenon in the language classroom because tests and quizzes are frequent and even the brightest and most prepared students often make errors (Horwitz et al. 1986). As a result, the students get anxious as they fear of making mistakes or getting poor grades. Horwitz et al. (1986) also claim that oral testing has the potential to provoke both test and oral communication anxiety simultaneously in susceptible students (Horwitz et al. 1986).
184.108.40.206 Fear of negative evaluationWatson & Friend (cited in Horwitz, et al., 1986, p.128) define fear of negative evaluation as the apprehension about other’s evaluation, avoidance of evaluative situation, and the expectation that others would evaluate one negatively. Horwitz et al. (1986, p.128) also claim that “the evaluation from the only fluent speaker in the room, the teacher, is crucial to a second language student” and students are also sensitive to the evaluations – real or imagined – of their peers. According to Ohata (2005), speaking in a foreign language is disturbing because of the fear that it might lead to the loss of one’s positive self-image or self-identity. In other words, students fear of experience of “losing oneself” in the target culture; i.e they want to save face. In a language classroom, students with these feelings are likely to over concern with academic and personal evaluation of his performance and competence in the target language (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989). In other words, students tend to worry about what their classmates think about their performance, and tend to be so scared of their peers? responses or evaluation when they express their self-image through a foreign language (Bailey, 1983; Price, 1991; Young, 1991). Accordingly, students who experience this anxiety rarely initiate conversation and often avoid interacting with others. They have a tendency to sit passively in the classes, retire from activities that could increase their language skills and may even avoid class entirely (Ely, 1986; Horwitz, et al., 1986).
220.127.116.11 Learner’s negative self-perception of English abilitySeveral researchers argue that learners’ self-perception of low ability in English is a significant source caused learners? anxiety. Young (1991) claims that learners who start out with a self-perceived low ability level in a foreign or second language are more likely to feel language anxiety. In her study, many of her students often compared themselves to others and believed their language skills to be weaker, and everyone else looked down on them. Similarly, Daly, J., Cauhlin, J. & Stafford, L. (1997a) state that anxious learners tend to have a more negative self-perception and tend to underestimate their quality of speaking ability. Sharing the same idea, Occhipinti (2009) concludes that students starting with a self-perceived low ability level in the foreign language class are perfect candidates for language anxiety. Kitano (2001, p. 550) argues that “speaking skill is usually the first thing that learners compare with that of peers, teachers, and native speakers”. In Kitano’s (2001) study, the students said that they would speak out loud and answer more questions if they were not afraid to give the wrong answer. Obviously, negative self-perception of English ability is a big carrier to foreign language learning. Students may think that they are unable to learn another language or pronounce strange sounds and words, unable to understand and answer questions and they don’t know how to translate their ideas into the target language. In agreement with this, Foss and Reitzel (1988, p.440) claim “perception of the self plays a key role in how students approach the acquisition and use of a second language”.
18.104.22.168 Teacher beliefsTeacher beliefs about language teaching can also be an anxiety-provoking factor, since the teacher’s assumption about the role of language teachers may not always correspond to the student’s needs or expectations (Ohata, 2005, p.7). For example, students may get nervous about their performance when their teacher believes he needs to constantly correct students’ errors or when the teacher always speaks in English with a high speed. Using speaking activities that put the learner “on the spot” in front of peers without allowing prior preparation is another example in this case. Likewise, Brandl (1987, cited in Young, 1991) claims that most instructors believe “a little bit of intimidation a necessary and supportive motivator for promoting students’ performance”. The following teacher beliefs are stated by Young (1991, p.428) as sources causing students’ anxiety: the teacher’s role is to correct every single mistake made by the students, pair or group work is not appropriate as it makes the class get out of control; the teacher should do most of the talking; and the teacher’s role is that of a drill- sergeant .These beliefs are not likely to create a good learning environment for foreign language learners, especially for the fresh men, since these beliefs may make the students become more nervous in a such highly- anxious-causing subject.
22.214.171.124 Teacher-student interactionsAnother factor claimed to be a cause of anxiety is associated with the relationship between teachers and learners. Palacios (1998) states that the following teacher characteristics are related to students? anxiety: absence of teacher support, unsympathetic personalities, lack of time for personal attention, favoritism – that is in the classroom, teachers often concentrate on proficient students as a priority; spend time supporting these learners as the way to avoid wasting time. Besides, a harsh manner of mistake correction is often cited as provoking anxiety. According to Koch & Terrell (1991) and Horwitz (1988), many learners feel that some error correction is necessary. However, Young (1991, p.429) argues that students more concern about how (where, what, when, how often) their mistakes are corrected rather than whether error correction could be administered in class. In addition, Koch & Terrell (1991) state that “learners consistently report anxiety over responding incorrectly, being incorrect in front of their peers, and looking or sounding, dumb”. Obviously, students become anxious and they are afraid of losing face in front of the class through the way their mistakes are treated.
These six sources of language anxiety discussed above are interrelated (Young, 1991; Horwitz et al., 1986). Therefore, language teachers should be fully aware of these sources to lessen foreign language anxiety in their students.
2.4 A REVIEW OF PREVIOUS STUDIES RELEVANT TO SPEAKING ANXIETYSpeaking skill is extremely anxiety-provoking in many language students and that is often to arouse more anxiety than the other skills. Daly (1991) reported that in some individuals “fear of giving a speech in public exceeded such phobias as fear of snakes, elevators, and heights” (p.3). Anxiety reactions suffered by many students when speaking or when being asked to speak by the teacher in the foreign language classroom include “distortion of sounds, inability to reproduce the intonation and rhythm of the language, freezing up when called on to perform, and forgetting words or phrases just learned or simply refusing to speak and remaining silent” (Young, 1991). “Students said that they did not feel too apprehensive during drills or about speaking if they had time to plan their spoken interventions, but would freeze if they had to speak spontaneously” (Horwitz et al,1986). They also noted that students who are apprehensive about making mistakes in front of others “seem to feel constantly tested and to perceive every correction as a failure” (p.130). Indeed, speaking tests seem to be particularly anxiety-provoking, as they probably arouse the three constituents of language anxiety.
Some other sources of FLA include competitiveness from peer students (Bailey 1983), fear of speaking in public (Young 1990), instructors’ aggressive way of teaching (Young 1991), the belief that others are better language learners (Price 1991), and teachers’ unsuitable methods of error correction (Koch and Terrell 1991). On the basis of the above-mentioned literature review on anxiety in language learning, Young (1991) identi?ed the following six potential sources of language anxiety: (a) personal and interpersonal anxieties, (b) learner beliefs about language learning, (c) instructor beliefs about language teaching, (d) instructor- learner interactions, (e) classroom procedures, and (f) language testing. In interviews with FL specialists, Young (1992) further reported some other factors playing a role in learner anxiety which include motivation, cultural factors, students’ own coping skills, attention, self-concept, and the speci?c teaching methodology student experi- ences. In addition to Young’s work in this ?eld, other researchers (e.g. Cheng 2002; Dewaele, Petrides, and Furnham 2008; Onwuegbuzie, Bailey, and Daley 2000) also discussed additional sources like frequency of language use, and context of language acquisition.
Classroom activities and the learning/teaching environment seem to bear directly on students’ anxiety and on their performance in speaking. Young found that “most students would prefer to offer responses orally themselves instead of being called on to give an answer” (Young, 1990). Students would be less nervous about oral exams if they had more practice speaking in class and most expressed a wish to have their errors corrected.
According to Young (1990), there are four activities that involved the speaking skill: (1) Present a prepared dialogue in front of the class; (2) Make an oral presentation or skit in front of the class; (3) Speak in front of the class; (4) Role play a situation spontaneously in front of the class” (p. 547).
Like Young (1986), Phillips (1990, 1992) also attempted to assess the influence of anxiety on students’ performance in an oral test, but went further than Young. He not only carried out correlations between oral exam grades and language anxiety but also evaluated eight criteria pertaining to the oral exam, and tried to find out if aspects of language ability might be influencing poorer grades, by means of partial correlations. He also conducted analyses of variance to discover if there were significant differences in mean oral exam grades in three anxiety groups (of low, of moderate, and of high anxiety). Finally, he conducted one-to-one interviews by using two research questions (1)What effect does anxiety have on students’ oral exam performance as measured by the test scores and several performance variables related to accuracy and amount of comprehensible speech? (p.15-16) and (2) What do highly anxious students say about the experience of taking an oral exam in a foreign language? (p.16) to find out about highly anxious students’ reactions to the oral exam.
Although individual reasons for speaking anxiety in English (such as not being familiar with the target language, lack of self-confidence and being afraid of making mistakes) are more dominant than others, generally speaking, the reasons for speaking anxiety are also environmental and educational, not strictly individual. According to some studies, most students worry about making pronunciation and vocabulary mistakes while speaking in the classroom (Horwitz et al., 1986; Koch & Terrell, 1991; Öztürk & Gürbüz, 2014; Price, 1991). Potential reactions and evaluations by other students in class can be a dominant factor in regard to the anxiety that students experience while speaking, since students may become more anxious about making mistakes in pronunciation and fear being laughed at when they speak without being prepared in advance and when exposed to immediate questions (Öztürk & Gürbüz, 2014).
Students and teachers have different perspectives on speaking anxiety in English, as confirmed by He (2013) in the only study comparing teachers’ and students’ perspectives regarding the reasons for general English speaking anxiety. On the basis of comprehensive data from 332 participants (302 students and 30 teachers) at two universities in China, He (2013) identified 13 major reasons for Chinese students’ English speaking anxiety. Only two among the five least supported reasons by both the students and teachers are the same, namely “fear of speaking English relative to reading and writing in it” and “fear of speaking English with others”. Data also indicate that a lack of vocabulary is the most important reason according to students, whereas teachers attached significantly less importance to this reason. The different views about the reasons for speaking anxiety in an FL between students and teachers call for a mutual understanding and communication so that everybody can be better informed of each other’s viewpoints.
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGYThe chapter presents the research methodology in which the current study was implemented. The chapter includes (1) research questions, (2) research hypotheses, (3) research design, (4) research instruments, (5) participants involved in the study, (6) research procedure, and (7) data analysis.3.1 RESEARCH DESIGNCreswell (2013) presents that descriptive method using the combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches provide an expanded understanding of research issues. Therefore, this research is a descriptive survey research design including both quantitative and qualitative data collected with a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire with regard to factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety. During the study process, the researcher conducted the questionnaire to determine the students’ and teachers’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety. Table 3.1 below summarizes the research methods used to examine the issues that the research questions posed in the studyTable 3.1Research questions and corresponding methodsResearch questions
What is the students’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety? -1054109226500
What is the teachers’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety? Quantitative: Questionnaire
Is there any mismatch between students’ and teachers’ perceptions? 3.2. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
To collect data for this study, a twenty items Likert-scale questionnaire was utilized. These 20 items are related to 6 factors adapted from the original version in order to be more suitable to the EFL learning context of Vietnam.By undertaking the case study and phenomenological study to collect both qualitative and quantitative data, the researcher uses the questionnaire for both students and teachers. It is said that using the questionnaire to collect data is one of the most common methods due to its being uniquely capable of gathering much information (Dornyei, 2003) from a large sample of individuals quickly (Fraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun, 2012).
A questionnaire was designed based on a review of the literature about factors viewed as causing anxiety that affects speaking skills. The questionnaire includes two parts. The first part obtains some background information of the participants including their age, sex and the number of years they have been learning or teaching English. The second part seeks to investigate the factors causing the students anxious in speaking classes, including six clusters in terms of sources of foreign language anxiety, which contains twenty items relevant to communication apprehension (items 1,2,3,4), test anxiety (items 5,6), fear of negative evaluation (items 7,8,9), learner’s negative self-perception of English ability (items 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15), teacher beliefs (items16, 17), and teacher-student interactions (items 18,19, 20). Some items were modified based on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope 1986). In the questionnaires, the respondents were asked to express their agreement or disagreement to each item on a five-point Likert response scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The data obtained from the questionnaire was tabulated, presented, and percentages were calculated.
In order to enable the teachers to judge their students’ anxiety levels and feelings as an independent stakeholder, a teacher’s version of the questionnaire was provided. The two versions are almost the same except for some wording, since teaching and learning are two aspects of the research questions. For example, the item “I feel nervous when I speak English in front of the class.” was for the teachers reworded as “I think students feel nervous when they speak English in front of the class.”
To ensure the best comprehensibility, the questionnaire was translated into Vietnamese, the native language of the participants. Since the aim of the study is to investigate perceptions of factors causing speaking anxiety in EFL classes in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, it is thought that it would be more appropriate to distribute a Vietnamese version of the questionnaire to participants to ensure that they fully understand the meaning of the questionnaire and they can freely choose either English or Vietnamese language to give responses.
3.3 PARTICIPANTSThe participants of this study were students and teachers at high school. There were 60 students who took part in this study. Although they have learnt English for over four years at school, their English proficiency has been low. They are only good at grammar, not speaking. They can do grammatical exercises very quickly and well but they cannot speak fluently. They are not used to working in peers, groups or taking responsibility for their learning. They often feel shy in the public as most of them come from countryside and have little social contacts.There were 30 teachers involved in this study. Most of them had over 4 years of experience as English teachers. Some have taught English for over 10 years. They are energetic and willing to devote their time and energy to teaching. Most of them have a high appreciation to teaching speaking. However, they have to face a lot of difficulties in teaching speaking because students seem to be passive in all speaking activities.
3.4. RESEARCH PROCEDUREIn this study, data were collected from the questionnaires, in hope of finding out factors causing high school students speaking anxiety as well as the differences between students’ perceptions and teacher’s.
3.4.1. PlanningTo determine factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety, at first, the researcher made an appointment with the principal of high schools to ask for a permission to make an investigation. Next, the researcher piloted the questionnaire to 20 English teachers. After that, the questionnaire was delivered to 60 students and 30 teachers from high schools. As a result, data analysis will be done right after all these steps have been collected.
3.4.2. Piloting the questionnaire
Before being officially used in the research, the questionnaire in Vietnamese version was piloted with twenty teachers randomly chosen in order to ensure that all the participants can understand the questionnaire clearly.
The software SPSS 20.0 was used to analyze the data. After piloting the questionnaire, the Cronbach’s alpha is .833, which means that the reliability of the questionnaire is high and the researcher can administer the questionnaire to collect the official data.
3.4.3. Administering the questionnaireThe questionnaire in Vietnamese version was delivered to sixty students and thirty teachers. Besides answering personal information, participants were required to rate their opinions with a five point Likert scale questionnaire including strongly disagree, disagree, partly agree, agree, and strongly agree. Before delivering the questionnaire, the researcher explained the purpose of the survey and introduced the questionnaire. After that, the participants completed the questionnaire and sent back to researcher.
3.5. DATA ANALYSISAfter collecting data from the questionnaire, the researcher moved to the analysis stage of the study. The data of the questionnaire are analyzed with the SPSS software 20.0. The participants’ answers to the questionnaire were examined for abnormalities and missing data. First, the Scale Test was run to check the reliability of the questionnaires collected from the participants. The result shows that the questionnaire was a reliable instrument (? = .889) Next, the response frequencies and the means of all the items were tabulated. Rank-orders of the means for both student and teacher groups were obtained to examine the importance of the factors to each group. The Independent Sample t- Tests were also conducted to find specific differences in the emphasis of the reasons between student and teacher groups.
CHAPTER FOURFINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONThe current chapter presents the results together with discussion of the analysis of the data that were collected for this study.
4.1 THE RELIABILITY OF THE QUESTIONNAIREIn order to investigate the perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety between students and teachers, two questionnaires was delivered directly to ninety participants (thirty teachers and sixty Grade 10 students) in Can Tho. After checking missing data, the questionnaire from ninety participants was usable. The data collected from the questionnaire were subjected to SPSS version 20.0 for quantitative data analysis. The results from the Scale Tests showed that the questionnaires were reliable enough for the current study to be conducted (as shown in Table 4.1)
Table 4.1 The reliability of the questionnairesAdministering the questionnaire Number of participants Reliability
(Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient)
Pilot questionnaire 20 .833
Implemented questionnaire 90 .889
4.2 STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF FACTORS CAUSING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ANXIETY.The first purpose of the current study is to investigate the students’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking anxiety (research question 1). The responses to the statements in the second part of the questionnaire for students including item 1 to item 20 relevant to communication apprehension (1), test anxiety (2), fear of negative evaluation (3), learner’s negative self-perception of English ability (4), teacher beliefs (5), and teacher-student interactions (6) (as presented in Section 3.4.1 in Chapter 3) provided the data for the study.
Table 4.2Students’ response frequencies and means of the items causing speaking anxiety items (N=60)ItemsSD (%)D (%)PA (%)A (%)SA (%)Mean11. I am afraid of speaking English without preparation.01.76.763.328.34.1810. I never feel quite sure of myself when I am speaking in English class.08.316.748.326.73.936. I feel anxious when I get low marks in speaking.56.78.351.728.33.925. I get anxious when I know I will be graded in English speaking class.58.313.44528.33.832. I feel nervous when speaking English in front of the class3.35.028.341.721.73.7315. I keep thinking that the other students speak English better than I do.56.721.646.7203.7013. I am afraid of speaking English as I fear that I am going to give wrong answers3.31016.756.713.33.673. I tremble and feel my heart pounding when I am going to be called on to answer questions in English.58.326.738.321.73.6314. I am afraid of speaking English as I fear mispronouncing English words.3.31513.453.3153.6212. Despite preparing carefully, I still feel nervous.3.3102056.7103.601. I feel more nervous in speaking English class than in other classes6.71021.646.7153.538. I am afraid of being laughed at by others when I make mistakes in speaking English.52018.34016.73.439. I fear hash manner of teacher when I make mistakes in speaking English.6.716.7253516.73.3816. I feel stressed in English speaking lessons because the teacher’s requirements are too demanding.528.321.728.316.73.2319. During English speaking lessons, teacher concentrates on proficient students as a priority.8.32521.733.711.73.157. I am afraid that the other students will have bad impressions on me when I speak English in front of the class.13.320203511.73.124. It embarrasses me to volunteer answers in the language class.11.7253023.3102.9520. The teacher is strict and always keeps a distance from the students, which makes the learning atmosphere stressful.3.34026.720102.9318. I am not often active in speaking classes because of the teacher’s apathy. 16.723.321.728.3102.9217. English teacher always does most of the talking in speaking lessons, so I don’t have chances to practice.536.72528.352.92Table 4.2 shows that the students defined as the most important reason for foreign language speaking anxiety a speaking without preparation (item 11, M = 4.18). This suggests that for the students a key reason for speaking anxiety is learner’s negative self-perception of English ability. According to the students, among the top reasons for high school students’ speaking anxiety are also being unsure of themselves when speaking in English class, getting low marks in speaking (item 6) and be graded in English speaking class (item 5). Speaking English in front of the class (item 2) and thinking the other students speak English better than (item 15) had a 3.7 mean score. Four reasons had a 3.6 mean score: giving wrong answer (item 13), trembling when being called on to answer questions in English (item 3), mispronouncing English words (item 14) and being nervous despite careful preparation (item 12). Only one reason had a 3.5 mean score: feeling more nervous in speaking English class than in other classes (item 1) and there is also one reason having 3.4 mean score: being laughed at by others when making mistakes in speaking English (item 8). These reasons were perceived by the students experienced in the English speaking class. According to students, they were the most important reasons affecting their anxiety in speaking English. The other reasons such as teacher’s hash manner (item 9, M =3.38). ) demanding teacher’s (item 16, M = 3.23), teacher’s concentration on proficient students (item 19, M= 3.15) receiving bad impressions from the other students (item 7, M= 3.12), their embarrassment due to volunteering answers in the language class (item 4, M = 2.95), teacher’s strictness and distance between students and teacher (item 20, M = 2.93), teacher’s apathy (item 18, M = 2.92), no chances to practice speaking in class (item 17, M = 2.92) do not influence their English speaking anxiety much.
Table 4.3 Students’ response means of the factors causing speaking anxiety (N = 60)Factors N Mean
1 Test anxiety 60 3.875
2 Learner’s negative self-perception of English ability 60 3. 783
3 Communication apprehension 60 3.463
4 Teacher beliefs 60 3.328
5 Fear of negative evaluation 60 3.311
6 Teacher-student interactions 60 3.075
Table 4.3 showed that there were three factors that the students claimed they significantly influenced to students’ speaking anxiety. The most important factors for speaking anxiety is test anxiety (3.875). Items 4, 5 were used to seek out whether the students feared being graded in English classes. Surprisingly, item 5 attracts % 80 of “agree” or “strongly agree” in the responses, in which over one fourth of this number (28.3%) responded they strongly agreed – that is the majority of the students confirmed that they were anxious when they got low marks in speaking. The feeling of anxiety and sense of failure which follow can be debilitating for the nervous learner. This can also create negative self-image, lack of confidence, and feeling unsure of one’s ability (Oda, 2011). Besides, nearly three fourth of the students (73.4%) became anxious when being graded speaking (item 4). Such feeling, according to Oda (2011), is described “like fear or apprehension, but they have nothing to do with avoiding communication with others or to be negatively evaluated by them.” The reason why students had this feeling that they feared the negative consequences of getting bad marks and some of them expressed they would feel less anxious without marks at the end of the talk. Their nervousness due to being graded in turn led to their forgetfulness, distortion of sounds, inability to reproduce the intonation and rhythm of the language, and avoiding eye contact. These thoughts seem to be supported by the argument of Price (1991) and McIntyre & Gardner (1994) when these researchers claimed that the students may put down the wrong answers or simple “freeze up” due to nervousness, even if they know the correct answer. This anxiety would cause other psychological stresses, such as the fear of losing self-confidence or feeling inferior to others. Moreover, learner’s negative self-perception of English ability and communication apprehension are also important factors. Learner’s negative self-perception of English ability makes students become anxious and, accordingly, obstructs them in the process of participation in the class or hinders their performance in English classes. Specifically, they were lack of confidence in their oral ability: more than 90% of the students revealed that they were not confident in their speaking ability. The data in table 4.3 shows that the high school students’ speaking anxiety exists in speaking class: 63.4% of the participants agreed or strongly agreed that they felt more nervous when speaking in front of the class and more than 50% of students felt more nervous in speaking English class than in other classes. Besides, their communication apprehension is shown clearly through their responses to items 3 and 4 – they feel nervous and apprehensive of speaking both when they were called to answer questions and when they wanted to volunteer to give answers. However, the two items did not get much agreement from the students. It is evident that these feelings of apprehension obstruct the students in participating in the English speaking activities.4.3 TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF FACTORS CAUSING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ANXIETYTable 4.4Teachers’ response frequencies and means of the items causing speaking anxiety items (N=30)ItemsSD (%)D (%)PA (%)A (%)SA (%)Mean
5. I think the students get anxious when they know they will be graded in English speaking class. 0 3.3 3.4 53.3 40 4.30
11. I think the students are afraid of speaking English without preparation 0 3.3 3.4 53.3 40 4.30
13. I think the students are afraid of speaking English as they fear that they are going to give wrong answers 0 6.7 0 53.3 40 4.27
14. I think the students are afraid of speaking English as they fear mispronouncing English words. 0 3.3 6.7 60 30 4.17
2. I think the students feel nervous when speaking English in front of the class 0 13.3 13.4 40 33.3 3.93
7. I think the students are afraid that the other students will have bad impressions on them when speaking English in front of the class. 0 13.3 16.7 46.7 23.3 3.80
3. I think the students tremble and feel their heart pounding when they are going to be called on to answer questions in English. 3.3 10 20 43.3 23.3 3.73
1. I think the students feel more nervous in speaking English class than in other classes 3.3 13.4 20 43.3 20 3.63
9. I think the students fear hash manner of teacher when they make mistakes in speaking English. 3.3 20 13.3 36.7 26.7 3.63
12. I think the students still feel nervous despite preparing carefully. 6.7 13.3 13.3 46.7 20 3.60
8. I think the students are afraid of being laughed at by others when they make mistakes in speaking English. 6.7 16.7 13.3 40 23.3 3.57
15. I think the students keep thinking that the other students speak English better than they do. 3.3 13.3 36.7 20 26.7 3.53
6. I think the students feel anxious when they get low marks in speaking. 13.3 13.4 13.3 46.7 13.3 3.33
10. I think the students never feel quite sure of themselves when they are speaking in English class. 3.3 23.4 20 43.3 10 3.33
4. I think it embarrasses the students to volunteer answers in the language class. 6.7 23.3 20 36.7 13.3 3.27
19. During English speaking lessons, I concentrates on proficient students as a priority. 3.3 36.7 13.3 36.7 10 3.13
16. I think the students feel stressed in English speaking lessons because the teacher’s requirements are too demanding. 6.7 30 20 33.3 10 3.10
20. I am strict and always keeps a distance from the students, which makes the learning atmosphere stressful. 16.7 26.7 13.3 26.7 16.7 3.00
17. I always does most of the talking in speaking lessons, so students don’t have chances to practice. 3.3 33.4 33.3 30 0 2.90
18. I think the students are not often active in speaking classes because of my apathy. 6.7 33.3 30 26.7 3.3 2.87
Table 3 shows that the top for reasons for speaking anxiety considered by the EFL teachers were: be graded in English speaking class (item 5), speaking without preparation (item 11), mispronouncing English words (item 14), giving wrong answer (item 13). In the middle of the list were the following reasons: speaking English in front of the class (item 2) with a 3.93 mean score, receiving bad impressions from the other students (item 7) with a 3.8 mean core, being called on to answer questions in English (item 3) with a 3.73 mean core feeling more nervous in speaking English class than in other classes (item 1) with a 3.63 mean core, teacher’s hash manner (item 9) and being nervous despite careful preparation (item 2) with 3.6 mean core, being laughed at by others when making mistakes in speaking English (item 8) with 3.57 mean core and thinking the other students speak English better than (item 15,) with 3.53 mean core.. At the end of the list, there are eight reasons for speaking anxiety in foreign language with the lowest frequency: getting low marks in speaking (item 6, M = 3.33), do not influence their English speaking anxiety much. being unsure of themselves (item 10, M = 3.33), their embarrassment due to volunteering answers in the language class (item 4, M = 3.27), teacher’s concentration on proficient students (item 19, M= 3.13), demanding teacher’s (item 16, M = 3.20), teacher’s strictness and distance between students and teacher (item 20, M = 3.00), no chances to practice speaking in class (item 17, M = 2.90), teacher’s apathy (item 18, M = 2.87).Table 4.5
Teachers’ response means of the factors causing speaking anxiety (N = 30)Factors N Mean
1 Learner’s negative self-perception of English ability 30 3.867
2 Test anxiety 30 3.817
3 Fear of negative evaluation 30 3.667
4 Communication apprehension 30 3.642
5 Teacher-student interactions 30 3.00
6 Teacher beliefs 30 3.00
According to the teachers’ responses (Table 4.4),there were four factors effect to high school students’ speaking anxiety and these included three factors that referred to students’ answers learner’s negative self-perception of English ability, test anxiety, and communication apprehension. Another factor was fear of negative evaluation. As can be seen in the table 4.5, the students’ anxiety related to various kinds of evaluative situation in which their knowledge and performance of English were monitored by their teacher and classmates. , Students in large quantity (70%) were afraid of speaking English lest the other students would have bad perceptions at them. Similarly, fear of being laughed at by others when they make mistakes in speaking was found to be a shared anxious feeling by 63.3% of the respondents. This confirms the findings of Ohata (2005), Bailey (1983), Price (1991), and Young (1991) suggesting that these students feel so worried of making mistakes or being laughed at while speaking out loud in front of the class. Besides, hash manner of the teacher in error correction would be a factor causing students become anxious. 63.4% of the students was in agreement with this idea. This finding claimed that the learner resort to keeping silent and playing the role of audience in the classroom instead of being one of the active participants.4.4 TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF FACTORS CAUSING HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ANXIETYA further examination of Tables 4.2 and 4.4 revealed that three of the top five reasons supported by both the students and teachers were approximately the same (Items 5, 11, and 2). This suggests that these three reasons may be the most important sources of for the student participants in this study. The three reasons address students’ speaking anxiety from different respects, namely, “being graded in English speaking class”, “speaking English without preparation” and “speaking English in front of the class”. Among the five least supported reasons by both the students and teachers, three of them are the same, which address “teachers’ strictness”, “teachers’ empathy” and “chances for students to practice speaking in class”. In addition to the similarities identified above, some differences in the rank orders between the two groups were found. Remarkable differences emerged on Items 6. Students considered “getting low mark in speaking” as one of the most important reasons while the teachers ranked it thirteenth.
As noted before, three very prominent reasons of foreign language speaking anxiety strongly emphasized by both students and teachers. Two of them (11, 2) are the situations calling for instantaneous responses and improvisation of speech. Speaking a foreign language has already made students who are not proficient feel rather out of control, and speaking without preparation often makes the situation even worse. Therefore, teachers should initiate some familiar and known topics to students, such as foods, sports, music, family, and school. Starting with these familiar topics, students will not only feel less anxious in speaking but also develop more confidence when speaking a foreign language in front of the class. Fear of tests, especially oral tests, may lead to anxiety. Test anxiety may affect concentration and performance in a foreign language in a negative way, limit students from studying efficiently, and decrease their interest in a foreign language. For the purpose of helping students overcome their test anxiety and hence their foreign language speaking anxiety, teachers should try not to put students in the test-like situations (including students’ classroom performance into their semester assessment). On the other hand, students should remind themselves to treat speaking a foreign language as a learning process rather than a test situation.
Figure 4.1: The mean between students’ and teachers’ perceptions of items
Means and difference of item scores on which students and teachers showed signi?cant differences.
Ss/ Ts Differences
Item 6 3.92/ 3.33 2.176
Item 7 3.12/ 3.80 -2.866
Item 10 3.93/ 3.33 2.671
Item 14 3.62/ 4.17 -2.989
Item 20 2.93/ 3.00 -231
To compare the mean scores of the items between students and teachers, the Independent- Sample t- Tests were conducted. The results showed that the mean scores of teachers frequently higher than students, except item 6, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 but there were significant differences between the mean scores of items 6 (Sig = 0.029, t =2.176, p = 0.34), item 7 (Sig = 0.030 , t = -2.866, p = 0.005), item 10 (Sig = 0.034, t = 2.671, p = 0.010), item 14 (Sig = 0.012, t = -2.989, p = 0.004), item 20 (Sig = 0.023, t = -231, p = 0.819) (Apendix 7). Among them, two reasons (items 6 and 10) are related to the test anxiety (I feel anxious when I getting low marks in speaking) and learner’s negative self-perception of English ability (I never feel quite sure of myself when I am speaking in English class). The teachers placed significantly more emphasis than students on students’ fear of having bad impressions from the other students when speaking English in front of the class (item 7), mispronouncing English words (item 14), teachers’ strictness and distance between students and teachers (item 20).
Significant differences emerged from the comparison of the item means between student and teacher groups. One of the major differences was low marks in oral test. The data indicate that it is one of the most important reason according to students, whereas teachers attached significantly less importance to this reason. This is understandable since marks can affect students’ academic achievement. Moreover, students claimed that item 10 (students never felt quite sure of themselves when speaking in English class) was one of the main reasons effecting their speaking anxiety while the teachers asserted it was not important. Students feel uncertain when speaking in English class because they afraid of making mistakes and lack of confidence. As shown in result, having bad impressions from the others when speaking English in front of the class was considered as an important reasons for foreign language speaking anxiety by the teachers, but the students did not agree with this viewpoint although this worry is mainly associated with students’ fear of negative evaluation. It can be explained that students are speaking in front of their classmates who are not strange so the students do not worry. Another difference was fear of mispronouncing English words. Unlike teachers, students did not regard this reason is prominent. This disparity between the two groups may have important implications for classroom teaching. Traditional teaching and learning way emphasizes accuracy of pronunciation and intonation at the early stages of language study. Students spend a lot of time practicing pronunciation of individual words before they really start speaking the language. However, acquisition of good pronunciation and intonation is usually fluency. Therefore, in order to encourage students to speak more in a FL and hence to improve their fluency, teachers are recommended to ignore students’ minor errors or flaws in pronunciation and intonation as long as they do not cause problems of intelligibility.
CHAPTER FIVECONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSThis chapter first summarizes the major findings from the study. Next, the conclusion of the study will be drawn out. Then, relevant implications for both teachers students will be presented. Also, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research will be addressed.
5.1. SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGSForeign language anxiety is described as a complicated and multi-facet nature phenomenon which influences students in various ways. The current research was conducted to aim atde termining the perceptions of factors causing high school students speaking anxiety. One aspect is which factors are perceived for causing speaking anxiety by the students. The other aspect is to find out teachers’ perceptions of factor causing students’ speaking anxiety. The final aspect is the mismatch between students’ and teachers’ perceptions of factors causing high school students’ speaking axiety. In the research process, data were collected by means of the questionnaire. Sixty grade 10 students and thirty teachers participated in answering the questionnaire.
The data from the questionnaires indicates that speaking anxiety exists among the high school students. This anxiety mainly comes from the students’ communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and negative self- perception of English ability. Meanwhile, with appropriate behaviors, enthusiasms, expectation, good method of teaching and good relationship with students, the factors related to teachers’ beliefs and teacher-student interactions appear not to be main causes of anxiety for the students. Moreover, the findings indicates that students and teachers hold different perspectives on the reasons for speaking anxiety. The different views about the reasons of speaking anxiety between students and teachers call for mutual understanding and communication so that they can be better informed of each other’s viewpoints. According to Beishuizen et al. (2001), misunderstandings about mutual views of teachers and students may harm the efficiency of teaching and learning. For example, if students and teachers hold different views about “low mark in speaking” as an anxiety-provoking factor and its potential negative effects on students’ oral English performance, misunderstandings may occur, which may further inhibit their cooperation in teaching and learning process. As a result, development and adoption of appropriate anxiety coping strategies may become impossible. It is thus recommended that teachers pay special attention to the reasons which students considered most significant so as to better help them cope with foreign language speaking anxiety.
5.2. CONCLUSIONIn Vietnam, English is considered as a major subject in the schooling system from primary to tertiary education. However, it is an undeniable fact that most teachers of English emphasize on teaching grammar more than teaching skills. Especially, although speaking is an indispensable skill in every aspect of the life, it is not paid enough attention to, which leads to an issue that students get nervous in speaking in English. Being aware of the factors resulting in their foreign language speaking anxiety is one of the preconditions to helping them reduce such anxiety. Without due awareness of students’ foreign language speaking anxiety, teachers often attribute the reason why students are not interested in joining the speaking class is lack of motivation, while the real reason behind their reluctance, the foreign language speaking anxiety, is usually ignored. To deal with this problem, language teachers should have a good grasp of language anxiety and recognize the existence of anxiety among the students to apply appropriate teaching methods and help the students control such feelings. Besides, for the students, they themselves should understand more about the feelings of speaking anxiety and find out effective methods to overcome the anxiety in speaking.
5.3. PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
Based on the conclusions provided in section 5.2, pedagogical implications will be discussed in this section, including implications for teachers of English and students.
5.3.1. Implications for the teachersFirst and foremost, teachers should be aware of the existence of anxiety among students in English learning classes, especially in speaking classes. The teachers should identify the students’ signs of stress and nervousness and, the reasons for these feelings in order to apply appropriate strategies to help them eliminate such feelings. Especially, teachers should show the low proficient students and anxious students that the teachers always care for them, and give them more time for preparation as well as accept a variety of their answers. This will help them feel more confident or less nervous in the class. Besides teachers should speak at a suitable speed, which will help students understand what their teachers say and keep up the lesson.Second, teachers should initiate discussion about the feelings of anxiety in front of the class by asking students to write their fears or anxieties on the board to share them with their peers ( Foss & Reitzel, 1988). It is helpful because they will understand that they are not suffering those feelings alone, and having a slight feeling of anxiety is normal. This helps students decrease foreign language anxiety as well as provides students with chances to learn methods of controlling anxiety both from their classmates and teachers.Third, for active participation in the classroom activities, teachers should create a friendly, informal and learning-supportive environment through the teacher’s friendly, humorous, helpful, patient behavior so that students feel more comfortable or less nervous. A specific example for this is that teachers should remember and use the students’ name instead of common calling “you” to make a closer relationship between students and teachers. Furthermore, teachers should apply an encouraging style of questioning rather than threatening one or avoid intimidation, and give students more positive feedback. In general, according to Horwitz et al. ( 1986), “educators have two opinions when dealing with anxious students: (1) they can help them learn to cope with the existing anxiety provoking situation; or (2) they can make the learning context less stressful “.Fourth, in order to reduce students ‘test anxiety, teachers should avoid focusing on possible detrimental consequences of low marks and instead encourage students to put out their best effort and work hard. Teachers should apply formative assessment (assessment for learning) feedback rather than summative assessment (assessment of learning) feedback in order to eradicate students’ fear of leaving bad impression on teacher or fear of influencing course grades when they make mistakes. Creating a low- stress learning atmosphere is also very helpful as it allows student to focus on communication rather than distracted by the fear of getting low marks. Furthermore, teachers should teach students to self-control their tension when answering questions.Fifth, as students appeared to be acutely sensitive to fear of making mistakes or being negatively evaluated, teachers should help students understand that making mistakes is a part of the language learning process. Mistakes are not bad and indeed they are a sign of learning. Accordingly, students’ feelings of being looked down or sounding inept will be eliminated. Besides, teachers should emphasize the importance of conveying meaning. In other words, getting their points across is more important than saying it without errors. Another way to eradicate the nervousness of students when speaking is that teachers should make private notes of the errors and then later address the whole class without indicating which error made from which student. In short, elimination of fear of negative evaluation is one of the most important factors helping the students more actively participate in speaking activities.Finally, dealing with students’ negative self-perception of English ability, teachers should build students’ confidence and encourage students to feel successful in using English by avoiding setting up activities that enhance the chances for them to fail. Teachers should make sure whether the students are ready for the given activity and have sufficient ideas and lexis to complete the task successfully. A truly communicative approach where students are given chances to succeed even with imperfect language competence is considered a good environment for students to take part in. In addition, teachers should give students compliment, encouragement, reassurance, positive reinforcement, and empathy for students? performance than criticism, as this can help students eliminate their negative self- perception of English ability, and build confidence and self-esteem in their speaking ability (Onwuegbuzie et al., 1999, p.232). If the students are confident in themselves, they will be on their way to speaking successfully, with better fluency and accuracy.5.3.2. Recommendations for studentsIn the fact that Vietnamese students are not used to speaking a foreign language, and they usually feel uncomfortable when being the focus of attention in class. However, the nervousness can be controlled. Below are some suggestions students should take into consideration to overcome the feelings of anxiety in speaking class.Firstly, students should recognize their own feeling of anxiety. More importantly, they should understand that it is normal to experience foreign language anxiety especially in speaking and that they are not the only one suffering from this feeling. Thus, they should share their own experiences with other peers and teachers, and find appropriate ways to handle it.Secondly, they should recognize that they themselves, not the teachers, take responsibility for their success or failure in learning every subject. Therefore, they should find some ways to overcome their communication apprehension, to motivate themselves and to make themselves get involved actively in all activities in class. One student expressed “I am introvert so what I should do now is trying to be extrovert. Being extrovert may make me feel free to express my ideas and take part in all activities actively”. By this way, their feelings of anxiety or being isolated will go away.Thirdly, a poor conceived self-image can negatively influence students? language performance so they should be confident in themselves. They should focus on achievement rather than deficiencies. In addition, students should think about their positive personality traits or their own strengths and build upon themselves. Besides, students should help other classmates feel confident by being tolerant of and not laughing at their mistakes (Tanner and Green, 1998, p. 19).Finally, as have been shown, fear of losing face or being negatively evaluated is one of the main factors making students apprehensive speaking in front of their peers and teachers, and according to Brown (2007) taking risks is one of the effective solution for this. Brown (2007) claims that risk- taking is one of the necessary characteristics of a successful second/ foreign language learner, i.e accepting making mistakes during learning process is necessary for good or wanting-to-be-good learners. Students are advised to take risks of being wrong one time to improve the next time. They may make mistakes while speaking but through mistakes, they will obtain much more useful experience and get more chances to interact with their peers and teacher. This helps them make progress in their speaking ability. 5.4. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYAlthough the study has reached its aims, there are some unavoidable limitations. First, this study is conducted only on a small group of participants and it might not be representative. It should be expanded to include more in order to make a clear conclusion. Second, the questionnaires used as research tools in this study have provided different insights into the nature of speaking anxiety; however, the results would be more reliable and valid if the researcher combines other research instruments such as interview. Third, this study only determine the perceptions of factor causing speaking anxiety while it is said that the students also face difficulties in reading, speaking, and listening in Engish. For this, it had better conduct an investigation into challenges in mountainous students’ reading, listening and speaking in English. Finally, in the current study, only some possible solutions have been suggested to cope with students? anxiety in speaking classes.
5.5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDYIn an attempt to extend the scope of the current study, it is recommended that further research should expand participants all grades high school students so that perceptions of factors causing speaking anxiety can be deeply understood. In addition, it is also suggested that further research should be implemented on more high schools. The reason for this suggestion is that due to different features of each high school, students in each school can hold different perceptions of factor causing speaking anxiety. Finally, further studies should also include perceptions of factors of other skills (i.e. listening, reading, writing skills) so that teachers can understand problems hindering learners’ progress in learning tthe foreign language.
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APPENDICESAPPENDIX 1The questionnaire was adapted and adjusted from the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope 1986)
FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM ANXIETY SCALE
( Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope 1986)
SA= Strongly agree
N= neither degree nor disagree
SD= Strongly disagree
1. I never feel quite sure of myself when I am speaking in my foreign language class.
2. I don’t worry about making mistakes in language class.
3. I tremble when I know that I’m going to be called on in language class.
4. It frightens me when I don’t understand what the teacher is saying in the foreign language classes.
5. It wouldn’t bother me at all to take more foreign language classes.
6. During language class, I find myself thinking about things that I have nothing to do with the course.
7. I keep thinking that the other students are better at languages than I am.
8. I am usually at ease during tests in my language class.
9. I start to panic when I have to speak without preparation in language class.
10. I worry about the consequences of failing my foreign language class.
11. I don’t understand why some people get so upset over foreign language classes.
12. In language class, I can get so nervous that I forget things I know.
13. It embarrasses me to volunteer answers in my language class.
14. It would not be nervous speaking the foreign language with native speakers.
15. I get so upset when I don’t understand what the teachers is correcting.
16. Even if I am well prepared for language class, I feel anxious about it.
17. I often feel like not going to my language class.
18. I feel confident when I speak in foreign language class.
19. I am afraid that my language teacher is ready to correct every mistake I make.
20. I can feel my heart pounding when I’m going to be called on in language class.
21. The more I study for a language test, the more confused I get.
22. I don’t feel pressure to prepare very well for language class.
23. I always feel that the other students speak the foreign language better than I do.
24. I feel very self-conscious about speaking the foreign language in front of other students.
25. Language class moves so quickly I worry about getting left behind.
26. I feel more tense and nervous in my language class than in my other classes.
27. I get nervous and confused when I am speaking in my language class.
28. When I am on my way to language class, I feel very sure and relaxed.
29. I get nervous when I don’t understand every word the language teacher says.
30. I feel overwhelmed by the number of rules you have to learn to speak a foreign language.
31. I am afraid that the other students will laugh at me when I speak the foreign language.
32. I would probably feel comfortable around native speakers of the foreign language.
33. I get nervous when the language teacher asks questions which I haven’t prepared in advance
APPENDIX 2QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS
I. General Information: 1. Name:……………………………………………………………………….2. Gender: Male Female3. Age: ……………………….………………………………………………..
4. Years of learning English: …………………………………..………………II. Questionnaire
This questionnaire consists of 21 statements, each of which is about factors causing high school students speaking anxiety. Please read each statement and put a tick () to indicate your opinion on each, according to the following scale:
– Strongly disagree: (1)
– Disagree: (2)
– Partly Agree: (3)
– Agree: (4)
– Strongly agree: (5)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1. I feel nervous when speaking English in front of the class 2. I tremble and feel my heart pounding when I am going to be called on to answer questions in English. 3. It embarrasses me to volunteer answers in the language class. 4. I get anxious when I know I will be graded in English speaking class. 5. I feel anxious when I get low marks in speaking. 6. I am afraid that the other students will have bad impressions on me when I speak English in front of the class. 7. I am afraid of being laughed at by others when I make mistakes in speaking English. 8. I fear hash manner of teacher when I make mistakes in speaking English. 9. I never feel quite sure of myself when I am speaking in English class. 10. I am afraid of speaking English without preparation 11. Despite preparing carefully, I still feel nervous. 12. I feel more nervous in speaking English class than in other classes 13. I am afraid of speaking English as I fear that I am going to give wrong answers 14. I am afraid of speaking English as they fear mispronouncing English words. 15. I keep thinking that the other students speak English better than I do. 16. I feel stressed in English speaking lessons because the teacher’s requirements are too demanding. 17. English teacher always does most of the talking in speaking lessons, so I don’t have chances to practice. 18. The role of English teacher during the speaking lesson is supposed to constantly correct students’ mistakes. 19. I am not often active in speaking classes because of the teacher’s apathy. 20. During English speaking lessons, teacher concentrates on proficient students as a priority. 21. The teacher is strict and always keeps a distance from the students, which makes the learning atmosphere stressful. APPENDIX 3
B?NG CÂU H?I KH?O SÁT DÀNH CHO H?C SINH
Tôi tên là ?ào Nguy?n Anh ?ào. Hi?n t?i, tôi ?ang ti?n hành m?t nghiên c?u v? nh?n th?c c?a h?c sinh và giáo viên v? nh?ng nguyên nhân gây ra s? lo l?ng khi h?c nói ti?ng Anh c?a h?c sinh trung h?c ph? thông.
D??i ?ây là nh?ng câu h?i v?i nh?ng thông tin c?n thi?t ?? thu th?p d? li?u tin c?y cho nghiên c?u, r?t mong ???c các b?n ?óng góp ý ki?n. Tôi xin cam ?oan t?t c? nh?ng thông tin mà các b?n cung c?p s? ???c gi? bí m?t tuy?t ??i. Xin chân thành c?m ?n s? h?p tác c?a các b?n.I. Thông tin chung:1. Tên:…………………………………………………………………………..
2. Gi?i tính : Nam N?3. Tu?i : ……………………….………………………………………………..
4. B?n ?ã h?c ti?ng Anh ???c bao nhiêu n?m: ……………………………….II. N?i dung kh?o sát: Nh?n th?c c?a h?c sinh và giáo viên v? nh?ng nguyên nhân gây ra s? lo l?ng khi h?c nói ti?ng Anh c?a h?c sinh trung h?c ph? thông:Hãy ?ánh d?u (?) vào câu tr? l?i t??ng ?ng v?i ý ki?n c?a b?n:
– Hoàn toàn không ??ng ý: (1)
– Không ??ng ý: (2)
– ??ng ý m?t ph?n: (3)
– ??ng ý: (4)
– Hoàn toàn ??ng ý: (5)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1. Tôi luôn lo l?ng khi nói ti?ng Anh tr??c l?p. 2. Tôi th??ng th?y run và tim tôi ??p m?nh khi bi?t mình s?p b? g?i ?? tr? l?i câu h?i ti?ng Anh. 3. Tôi th?y ng?i ngùng khi gi? tay phát bi?u trong l?p h?c. 4. Tôi tr? nên lo l?ng khi tôi bi?t cô giáo s? cho ?i?m trong gi? h?c nói 5. Tôi c?m th?y lo l?ng khi tôi b? ?i?m nói kém. 6. Tôi s? các b?n trong l?p s? có c?m nh?n không t?t v? tôi khi tôi nói ti?ng Anh không t?t. 7. Tôi s? b? chê c??i vì m?c l?i sai trong khi nói ti?ng Anh. 8. Tôi s? thái ?? gay g?t c?a giáo viên khi tôi nói sai. 9. Tôi không bao gi? c?m th?y t? tin v? b?n thân mình khi nói ti?ng Anh. 10. Tôi s? ph?i nói ti?ng Anh mà không có s? chu?n b?. 11. Ngay c? khi chu?n b? k? bài r?i thì tôi v?n th?y lo l?ng. 12. Tôi th?y lo l?ng h?n trong l?p h?c nói ti?ng Anh so v?i các môn khác. 13. Tôi ng?i nói ti?ng Anh vì tôi s? mình s? tr? l?i sai. 14. Tôi ng?i nói ti?ng Anh vì tôi s? mình s? phát âm không chu?n. 15. Tôi luôn c?m th?y các b?n khác nói ti?ng Anh t?t h?n mình. 16. Trong các gi? h?c nói ti?ng Anh, giáo viên luôn ??t ra yêu c?u quá cao khi?n tôi c?m th?y b? áp l?c. 17. Trong các gi? h?c nói ti?ng Anh, giáo viên nói là ch? y?u, không dành ?? th?i gian cho l?p luy?n t?p nói. 18. Quan tâm ch? y?u c?a giáo viên khi nghe chúng tôi nói là nh?m s?a nh?ng l?i c?a chúng tôi. 19. Tôi th??ng không tích c?c trong các ti?t h?c nói vì giáo viên c?a tôi không nhi?t tình. 20. Trong các gi? h?c nói ti?ng Anh, giáo viên th??ng chú ý ??n nh?ng ng??i có h?c l?c khá h?n tôi và ?u tiên h? h?n. 21. Giáo viên c?a tôi nghiêm kh?c và luôn gi? kho?ng cách v?i h?c sinh. ?i?u ?ó làm không khí h?c t?p c?ng th?ng. APPENDIX 4QUESTIONAIRE FOR TEACHERS
I. General Information:1. Name:……………………………………………………………………….
2. Gender Male Female3. Age: ……………………….………………………………………………..
4. Years of teaching English: ………………………………………..…………II. Questionnaire
This questionnaire consists of 21 statements, each of which is about factors causing high school students speaking anxiety. Please read each statement and put a tick () to indicate your opinion on each, according to the following scale:
– Strongly disagree: (1)
– Disagree: (2)
– Partly Agree: (3)
– Agree: (4)
– Strongly agree: (5)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1. I think the students feel nervous when speaking English in front of the class 2. I think the students tremble and feel their heart pounding when they are going to be called on to answer questions in English. 3. I think it embarrasses the students to volunteer answers in the language class. 4. I think the students get anxious when they know they will be graded in English speaking class. 5. I think the students feel anxious when they get low marks in speaking. 6. I think the students are afraid that the other students will have bad impressions on them when speaking English in front of the class. 7. I think the students are afraid of being laughed at by others when they make mistakes in speaking English. 8. I think the students fear hash manner of teacher when they make mistakes in speaking English. 9. I think the students never feel quite sure of themselves when they are speaking in English class. 10. I think the students are afraid of speaking English without preparation 11. I think despite preparing carefully, the students still feel nervous. 12. I think the students feel more nervous in speaking English class than in other classes 13. I think the students are afraid of speaking English as they fear that they are going to give wrong answers 14. I think the students are afraid of speaking English as they fear mispronouncing English words. 15. I think the students keep thinking that the other students speak English better than they do. 16. I think the students feel stressed in English speaking lessons because my requirements are too demanding. 17. I think I always do most of the talking in speaking lessons, so students don’t have chances to practice. 18. I think the role of English teacher during the speaking lesson is supposed to constantly correct students’ mistakes. 19. I think the students are not often active in speaking classes because of my apathy. 20. I think during English speaking lessons, I concentrate on proficient students as a priority. 21. I think I am strict and always keeps a distance from the students, which makes the learning atmosphere stressful. APPENDIX 5B?NG CÂU H?I KH?O SÁT DÀNH CHO GIÁO VIÊN
Tôi tên ?ào Nguy?n Anh ?ào. Hi?n t?i, tôi ?ang ti?n hành m?t nghiên c?u v? nh?n th?c c?a h?c sinh và giáo viên v? nh?ng nguyên nhân gây ra s? lo l?ng khi h?c nói ti?ng Anh c?a h?c sinh trung h?c ph? thông.
D??i ?ây là nh?ng câu h?i v?i nh?ng thông tin c?n thi?t ?? thu th?p d? li?u tin c?y cho nghiên c?u, r?t mong ???c các b?n ?óng góp ý ki?n. Tôi xin cam ?oan t?t c? nh?ng thông tin mà các b?n cung c?p s? ???c gi? bí m?t tuy?t ??i. Xin chân thành c?m ?n s? h?p tác c?a các b?n.I. Thông tin chung:1. Tên:…………………………………………………………………………..
2. Gi?i tính : Nam N?3. Tu?i : ……………………….………………………………………………..
4. B?n ?ã d?y ti?ng Anh ???c bao lâu: …………………………………………II. N?i dung kh?o sát: Nh?n th?c c?a h?c sinh và giáo viên v? nh?ng nguyên nhân gây ra s? lo l?ng khi h?c nói ti?ng Anh c?a h?c sinh trung h?c ph? thông:Hãy ?ánh d?u (?) vào câu tr? l?i t??ng ?ng v?i ý ki?n c?a b?n:
– Hoàn toàn không ??ng ý: (1)
– Không ??ng ý: (2)
– ??ng ý m?t ph?n: (3)
– ??ng ý: (4)
– Hoàn toàn ??ng ý: (5)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh th?y lo khi nói ti?ng Anh tr??c l?p. 2. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh th??ng th?y run và tim ??p m?nh khi bi?t s?p b? g?i ?? tr? l?i câu h?i ti?ng Anh. 3. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh th?y ng?i ngùng khi gi? tay phát bi?u trong l?p h?c. 4. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh tr? nên lo l?ng khi bi?t giáo viên s? cho ?i?m trong gi? h?c nói. 5. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh c?m th?y lo l?ng khi b? ?i?m nói kém. 6. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh s? các b?n trong l?p s? có c?m nh?n không t?t khi h? nói ti?ng Anh không t?t. 7. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh s? b? chê c??i vì m?c l?i sai trong khi nói ti?ng Anh. 8. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh s? thái ?? gay g?t c?a giáo viên khi nói sai. 9. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh không bao gi? c?m th?y t? tin v? b?n thân khi nói ti?ng Anh. 10. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh s? ph?i nói ti?ng Anh mà không có s? chu?n b?. 11. Tôi ngh? là ngay c? khi chu?n b? k? bài r?i thì h?c sinh v?n th?y lo l?ng. 12. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh th?y lo l?ng h?n trong l?p h?c nói ti?ng Anh so v?i các môn khác. 13. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh ng?i nói ti?ng Anh vì s? mình s? tr? l?i sai. 14. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh ng?i nói ti?ng Anh vì s? mình s? phát âm không chu?n. 15. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh luôn c?m th?y các b?n khác nói ti?ng Anh t?t h?n mình. 16. Tôi ngh? là trong các gi? h?c nói ti?ng Anh, giáo viên luôn ??t ra yêu c?u quá cao khi?n h?c sinh c?m th?y b? áp l?c. 17. Tôi ngh? là trong các gi? h?c nói ti?ng Anh, giáo viên nói là ch? y?u, không dành ?? th?i gian cho l?p luy?n t?p nói. 18. Tôi ngh? là quan tâm ch? y?u c?a giáo viên khi nghe h?c sinh nói là nh?m s?a nh?ng l?i c?a h?c sinh. 19. Tôi ngh? là h?c sinh th??ng không tích c?c trong các ti?t h?c nói vì giáo viên c?a tôi không nhi?t tình. 20. Tôi ngh? là trong các gi? h?c nói ti?ng Anh, giáo viên th??ng chú ý ??n nh?ng ng??i có h?c l?c khá h?n và ?u tiên h? h?n. 21. Tôi ngh? là giáo viên thì nghiêm kh?c và luôn gi? kho?ng cách v?i h?c sinh. ?i?u ?ó làm không khí h?c t?p c?ng th?ng. APENDIX 6The reliability of the pilot and the post questionnaire
The pilot questionnaire The Implemented questionnaire
Reliability Statistics Reliability Statistics
Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items Cronbach’s Alpha Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items
.833 .859 20 8.89 8.90 90
Descriptive Statistics Descriptive Statistics
Mean Std. Deviation N Mean Std. Deviation N
Q1 3.70 1.129 20 Q1 3.57 1.071 90
Q2 3.95 .999 20 Q2 3.80 .985 90
Q3 3.75 .967 20 Q3 3.67 1.060 90
Q4 3.15 1.137 20 Q4 3.06 1.174 90
Q5 4.40 .503 20 Q5 3.99 1.000 90
Q6 3.30 1.218 20 Q6 3.72 1.152 90
Q7 3.85 .988 20 Q7 3.34 1.201 90
Q8 3.45 1.356 20 Q8 3.48 1.163 90
Q9 3.55 1.317 20 Q9 3.47 1.163 90
Q10 3.45 .945 20 Q10 3.73 .981 90
Q11 4.40 .503 20 Q11 4.22 .650 90
Q12 3.70 1.031 20 Q12 3.60 1.003 90
Q13 4.40 .754 20 Q13 3.87 .939 90
Q14 4.00 .725 20 Q14 3.80 .962 90
Q15 3.60 1.046 20 Q15 3.64 1.063 90
Q16 3.15 1.137 20 Q16 3.19 1.170 90
Q17 2.90 .852 20 Q17 2.91 .979 90
Q18 2.80 1.005 20 Q18 2.90 1.181 90
Q19 3.30 1.129 20 Q19 3.14 1.157 90
Q20 3.30 1.380 20 Q20 2.96 1.180 90
APPENDIX 7INDEPENDENT SAMPLE T-TESTGroup StatisticsGroupNMeanStd.
Error MeanItem 1Student603.531.081.140Teacher303.631.066.195Item 2Student603.73.972.125Teacher303.931.015.185Item 3Student603.631.073.139Teacher303.731.048.191Item 4Student602.951.171.151Teacher303.271.172.214Item 5Student603.831.092.141Teacher304.30.702.128Item 6Student603.921.046.135Teacher303.331.269.232Item 7Student603.121.250.161Teacher303.80.961.176Item 8Student603.431.140.147Teacher303.571.223.223Item 9Student603.381.151.149Teacher303.631.189.217Item 10Student603.93.880.114Teacher303.331.061.194Item 11Student604.18.624.081Teacher304.30.702.128Item 12Student603.60.924.119Teacher303.601.163.212Item 13Student603.67.951.123Teacher304.27.785.143Item 14Student603.621.027.133Teacher304.17.699.128Item 15Student603.701.030.133Teacher303.531.137.208Item 16Student603.231.184.153Teacher303.101.155.211Item 17Student602.921.030.133Teacher302.90.885.162Item 18Student602.921.266.163Teacher302.871.008.184Item 19Student603.151.176.152Teacher303.131.137.208Item 20Student602.931.071.138Teacher303.001.390.254Independent Samples TestLevene’s Test for Equality of Variancest-test for Equality of MeansFSig.TdfSig. (2-tailed)Mean DifferenceStd. Error Difference95% Confidence Interval of the DifferenceLowerUpperItem 1Equal variances assumed.006.936-.41688.679-.100.241-.578.378Equal variances not assumed-.41858.828.678-.100.240-.579.379Item 2Equal variances assumed.002.961-.90788.367-.200.221-.638.238Equal variances not assumed-.89455.918.375-.200.224-.648.248Item 3Equal variances assumed.136.713-.42088.676-.100.238-.573.373Equal variances not assumed-.42359.341.674-.100.236-.573.373Item 4Equal variances assumed.222.639-1.20988.230-.317.262-.837.204Equal variances not assumed-1.20858.027.232-.317.262-.841.208Item 5Equal variances assumed3.104.082-2.12888.036-.467.219-.902-.031Equal variances not assumed-2.44982.344.016-.467.191-.846-.088Item 6Equal variances assumed4.959.0292.32088.023.583.251.0841.083Equal variances not assumed2.17649.280.034.583.268.0451.122Item 7Equal variances assumed4.850.030-2.62888.010-.683.260-1.200-.167Equal variances not assumed-2.86673.083.005-.683.238-1.158-.208Item 8Equal variances assumed.088.768-.51088.611-.133.261-.652.386Equal variances not assumed-.49954.628.620-.133.267-.669.403Item 9Equal variances assumed.040.842-.96188.339-.250.260-.767.267Equal variances not assumed-.95156.477.346-.250.263-.777.277Item 10Equal variances assumed4.614.0342.84388.006.600.211.1811.019Equal variances not assumed2.67149.508.010.600.225.1491.051Item 11Equal variances assumed1.107.296-.80288.425-.117.146-.406.173Equal variances not assumed-.77052.415.444-.117.151-.420.187Item 12Equal variances assumed2.256.137.000881.000.000.226-.448.448Equal variances not assumed.00047.8731.000.000.244-.490.490Item 13Equal variances assumed1.323.253-2.98388.004-.600.201-1.000-.200Equal variances not assumed-3.18068.925.002-.600.189-.976-.224Item 14Equal variances assumed6.565.012-2.64188.010-.550.208-.964-.136Equal variances not assumed-2.98979.717.004-.550.184-.916-.184Item 15Equal variances assumed1.498.224.69988.486.167.238-.307.641Equal variances not assumed.67653.290.502.167.246-.328.661Item 16Equal variances assumed.111.740.50888.613.133.263-.389.655Equal variances not assumed.51259.416.611.133.260-.388.654Item 17Equal variances assumed1.344.250.07688.940.017.220-.421.454Equal variances not assumed.08066.587.937.017.209-.401.434Item 18Equal variances assumed2.873.094.18888.851.050.265-.478.578Equal variances not assumed.20371.064.840.050.246-.441.541Item 19Equal variances assumed.007.934.06488.949.017.260-.500.534Equal variances not assumed.06559.932.949.017.257-.498.531Item 20Equal variances assumed5.364.023-.25188.802-.067.265-.594.460Equal variances not assumed-.23146.772.819-.067.289-.648.515