Modern short-range technologies that I will be focusing in this essay are as follows
Modern short-range technologies that I will be focusing in this essay are as follows:
7. Cisco Intelligent Proximity
8. Apple iBeacon
11. Cognitive Radio
1. WiGig(Wireless Gigabit Alliance) – WiGig alliance promoted the IEEE 802.11ad. It supports speed 10 times faster than Wifi. It is a new a verion of wifi and an extension of 802.11 WiGig allow devices which operate in the 2.4, 5 and 60GHz, delivery data transfer up to 7Gbit/s.
• Data rate supported upto 7Gbit/s
• It extends 80.11 Media Access Control(MAC-a sublayer of the data link layer in 7 OSI layer. It is responsible for the transmission of data packets to and from the interface card , to and from another remotely shared channel)
• Protocol adaption layer being developed to support PC peripheral and HDTV, monitor and projector
• Physical layer enable low power and high transmission
• Robust communication up to 10 meter
• Advanced security and power management
• Enable multi gigabit wireless technology between two devices such as connection to storage and other high speed peripheral
• Offer a/v application
• Wireless display port ,high digital content protection
2.Bluetooth – A technology standard that is used foe exchange data at short range. Uses short wavelength UHF radio waves 2.4 to 2.485 GHz. It uses frequenc hopping spred spectrum.It divides data into packets of 79 designated blurtooth channel. Each channel has a bandwidth of 1MHz. It usually performs 1600hops per second.
It is a packet based protocal with master slave architecture. One may connect upto 7 slaves in piconet. All devices share the master clock. Packets may be 1,3,5 slots long.
Bluetooth is a low energy and very efficient.
3. RFID (Radio Frequency identification) – It used electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tag attached objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID readers interrogating radio waves.
Band Regulations Range Data speed Remarks
120-150KHZ(LF) Unregulated 10cm Low Animal identification, factory data collection
13.56MHz(HF) ISM band 10cm-1m Low to moderate Smart cards
433MHz(UHF) Short range 1-100m Moderate Defence application
(North America UHF)
ISM band 1-12m Moderate to High EAN(Europen Article Number)
(Microwave) ISM 1-2m High 802.11WLAN,Bluetooth
(Microwave) Ultra wide band Upto 200 m High Semi active or active tags
4.LiFi (Light Fidelity) – It used light to transmit data and positon. It uses light spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared radiation. Similar to wi-fi. Key difference wi-fi uses radio frequency . Light transmit data at very high bandwidth, working in areas susceptible to electromagnetic interference and also offers high transmission speed.
Bg-Fi is a LiFi system used for IOT devices.
It uses 802.11 protocols but it is UV,IR and visible light communication.
• Security-limiting to rooms as light does not pass through walls and hence make it a secure network
• Underwater application- can penetrate through water up to 200 m no light pass through 1000m.
• Hospital – many treatments involve multiple individual so this tech could be used to communicate
• Vehicles – can communicate with one another via front and back light to increase road safety. Street lights and traffic signal and also provide information about current road situation.
• Industrial Automation – capable of slip rings ,sliding contacts and short cable such as industrial ethernet.
5. ZigBee – It IS IEEE 802.15.4 based for suite of high level communication protocol used to create personal area networks with small , lower power digital radio such as home automation ,medical device and data collection. It is a low power low data rate and close proximity. It consume low power and also limit transmit distance 10-100 m line of sight depending on power output and environment characteristic. It transmit data over long distance by passing data through a mesh network of intermediate devices to reach more distant ones. They are secured at 128bit symmetric encryption keys.
• Home entertainment and control
• Wireless sensor network
• Industrial control
• Embedded sensing
• Medical data collection
• Smoke and intruder warning
• Building automation
• Remote wireless microphone config
6. NFC (Near Field communication) – Enable two electronic devices which usually portable devices such as smartphone to establish communication by bringing them within 4cm of each other. It establish a general supported standard when one of the connected devices has internet connectivity the other can exchange data with online services.