White paper From
From: Yimei Luo
To: Professor Armstrong
Subject: New technology used in future construction industry
In current or future construction industry, drones survey and inspect construction site and collect size, logistic and geography data easily. There are some materials for example concrete can be printed from 3D printers in ideal size and specific requirement. GPS and radio-frequency identification are used for tracking the materials, equipment, and workers, in order to organize project process and increase efficiency. Robots and autonomous vehicles do many actual building works, especially in dangerous place and finish effectively. 3D laser scanning or aerial mapping is used for side development. Bid data are subjected to advanced analytics and pick up contractors with high reputation. All of these new technologies are developing in construction industry and help contractor finish a project with high quality.Big Data technology
Emily Peiffer, April 11, 2016, “3 concepts that will shape the future of construction”
Big data is collection of tons of data and analysis of massive amounts of information to improve efficiency. It refers to the huge quantities of information in the past and can be used to be reference today. People can select their target products, contractors and markets base on their specific requirement immediately. Bid data has emerged in recent years as a source of valuable information and Terry Bennett who is senior industry strategist of civil infrastructure at Autodesk said big data could to transform the construction process. “Big data allows us to start with a problem at the beginning and let the information and big data figure out what the solution is,” he said during a panel. “You tell it what it needs to solve, and it does the horsepower.”
RACHEL BURGER, July 23, 2018, How the Construction Industry is Using Big Data
There are data from on-site workers, cranes, earth movers, material supply chains, and even building themselves can be use in new project. Managers and owners can gain more insights and make better decisions in construction management by researching data but also analyzing it to make conclusion of building project. Big data is more useful to analytics programs that count rather than make conclusion in single data. Designer can use bid data including design and modeling itself, environmental data, stakeholder input and social media discussions to decide the location, size and design of a building. Historical big data prevent a new construction project from pitfall with same reason and pick up a suitable pattern and organization. General owners can determine optimal phase of construction activities and determine project process planning from bid data about weather, traffic, and community and business activity. Setting up monitor in buildings, bridges and any other construction to collet big data can track energy conservation in malls, building process and design of construction. BIM coordinator is available to use these data to schedule maintenance activities as required.
3D printer technology
Antu Nehuen, Oct 7, 2015, 3D printing construction & architecture: building the home of the future
3D printer was created in 1984 by Charles W. Hull of ED Systems Corp. Hulll, is using additives to create solid 3D objects with the design shape from a digital model. The cost of 3D printers decreased from 2010 to 2013 and range price from $20,000 to $1,000 nowadays. 3D printers was adopted by architecture firms as the first businesses and used to create their architecture models. It’s useful for architects to study the interaction of volumes and shapes, communicate design ideas, explore how a design looks from different perspectives. Manual architecture modeling requires skilled craftsmanship and large amount of time rather than printing a model with 3D printer according to a model. There is almost no wasted material by using 3D technologies to build up a house. There is example of Chinese company Winsun that built a group of ten small houses in 10 days. They built in one single day for one 6-story building and an entire mansion. The huge 3D printer use concrete and construction waste to build and a staggering 20 feet tall, 33 feet wide and 132 feet long. They shipped components in and assembled together like Lego bricks. According to the company, building small house with 3D printer save up to 60% of the materials usually needed with traditional building methods and requires 80% less labor. It’s high efficiency and more affordable for contractor to finish a construction project.
Unmanned aerial vehicles & drone technology
RACHEL BURGER, March 17, 2018, 6 ways Drones are affecting the Construction Industry
unmanned aerial vehicles in the history was created in 1839, Austrian soldiers use a unmanned balloons which filled with explosives to hit the city of Venice. According to a Wall Street Journal report, in 2006 the first non-military drone was showed up. Company used drone for inspecting pipelines and spraying pesticides on farms. In recent years, construction industry began to use drones in construction project and has signification changes within the industry.
Drone become very useful land-surveillance method in construction industry, it reduces numbers of labor and time for surveying size and logistic of project. Drones eliminate much of human error during project process and spend less time to figure out necessary data rather than traditional methods. The schedule and duration of project decrease a lot and cutcost because drone collect and report data faster. Drones with camera are being used to collect video footage to facilitate communication and surveillance and able to manage workflow 24/7. Also, the advantage of drones is increasing security at worksite sharply by maintaining the safety of employees and protect job site from theft. Another advantage is eliminating transportation time, since drones do not have to adhere to traffic laws.
GPS and RFID tracking system technology
Elhami Nasr, Ph.D., PMP; Tariq Shehab, Ph.D and Ana Vlad California State University, Long Beach, 2013, Tracking Systems in Construction: Applications and Comparisons
United States Department developed the GPS as a reliable method of navigation for military applications. In 1983, GPS technology was available for civilian uses. This technology use satellites that orbits the earth at high altitudes to collect and send information 24 hours a day. GPS receivers receives information from satellite and use triangulation to determine their locations. Scientists compare the time satellites transmit signals and time the signals are received to determine position. RFID technology use wirelessly identify objects from a range or distance by sensing electromagnetic radiation.
GPS and RFID are helpful tools to locate resources on construction sites and prevent safety hazard problem. It’s applicable and affordable technologies to solve these problems without investing too much costs. Tracking technologies are Ultra-Wide Bands (UWB), Radio Frequency Identification Cards (RFID) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). They improve operations and maximize safety on construction sites.
RFID Journal, 27/06/2013, How is RFID Being Used in the Construction Industry?
Tracking systems improve daily performance and project management activities in the construction industry. RFID technology track thousands of expensive assets and equipments in construction sites, thereby reducing the need to order or rent new items as replacements for equipment that miss or cannot be located. Saipem, an Italian engineering company use RFID trace how old of their items and prevent excess inventory because of missing and out of date. By using RFIT to track prefabricated sections of large construction, it shorten project times and lwers labor costs. Hong Kong, building information management company Tecton Ltd use RFID track modular construction assets and hope to reduce the incidence of errors and make sure assets being sent onsite when required.
ADR’s workforce monitor software application provides information of workers on site, the number of workers, the location of them and whether they attend necessary training or certification course. While emergency occurs, supervisors would know where is worker and who have gone belowground on sites. The technology enhances safety and workforce management.
Building Information Model technology
Tate Jones, March 17, 2017, BIM for engineers: 3D Technology makes it easier to manage development projects
Building Information Model (BIM) use program to show 3D even 4D, 5D models from 2D blueprint drawing. BIM offers several advantages in building remodeling, construction planning, land surveying and etc. The technology collects three-dimensional data and create digital representation of a structure or property by model. It’s easier to collaborate between all parties working on a project, such as civil engineers, architects, BIM coordinators, project managers, structural engineers and MEP engineers to provide additional design. BIM provide information and method of planning, design, construction and maintenance phases of a structure or location. The benefits include improved plans, enhanced efficiency and a higher rate of productivity.
Individuals of a team can collect data for BIM and create a database which is accessible for each person on the team. At the beginning, team survey landscape and or build surveying tasks and then create a 3D model of the property, proposed structure or an existing building. At the end, It’s easier to use BIM to create the initial layout of a structure, roadway or another property feature. Also, clients are able to see initial design, view potential changes of a building from 3D models that add several features and meet the specific requirement from clients. BIM helps team members to discuss project process, visualize the design elements and analyze needs throughout the process.
3D Laser Scanning technology
Tate Jones, March 16, 2016, 3D Laser Scanning Technology: What are the Benefits?
3D laser scanning does not contact item to scan and may not destructive image and items during scanning. By using a line of laser light. 3D laser scanning use for design, construction of buildings, and collect survey information about a location. By using 3D laser scanning technology, it is possible to provide real, life-like images of a piece of land, the landscape, existing building and make well-informed calculations and designs. 3D laser scanning measure fine details and capture free-form shapes to quickly generate very high accurate data by capturing physical information of an item and putting into a digital three-dimensional representation. Construction?3D laser scanning help construction company capture 3D images and data in real-time to provide models or prior or post construction. Architects use it to superimpose a building image on a landscape to show what will be the project look like at then end. 3D laser scanning can plan a project and create the initial design by documenting existing conditions of a building. This technology decreased field time, increased visibility and understanding, accurate spatial reconstruction and provide higher precision data. Clients can expect lower overall risk, reduced rework, decreased project costs, capture existing condition in high quality and fewer physical site visits. Firstly, clients can gain highly accurate data that is available to manipulate and apply to schematics or other processes in shorter time and higher quality result. Scanner provide accurate depiction of an area of one condition and use the data in models.